EMCDDA Home
  • EN
Search

Prevention profiles

What are countries in Europe doing to prevent illicit drug use? These drug 'Prevention profiles' try to answer this question by providing information based on expert appraisal of the level of provision of different prevention interventions in Europe.

The latest update (April 2016) contains additional entries for family based approaches in universal prevention (family to family peer approaches, family or parents meetings and evenings, trainings for family, manualised parenting programmes) and in selective prevention (targeting substance abuse in family, socially disadvantaged parents, family conflict and neglect, criminal justice problems in family, families with mental health problems, ethnic families in marginalisation). These newly added items have been created in a pilot project, which involved a panel of experts from different societal sectors in each country. Therefore the information is not available for all EU countries. We have also added the detailed sub-categories of the Alcohol Control Score (only in the Country-by-country tab).

 

 
 

Prevention profile: Slovakia

��

Environmental strategies [?]

Tobacco and alcohol policies
OptionScore
Gini inequality index:25.3 (EU-27 average: 30.6)
Tobacco Control Scale:39 (EU average: 46.2)
Alcohol Control Score:54 (EU average: 71.2)
Breakdown of Alcohol Control Score
Control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages:8
Age limits and personal control:12
Control of drunk driving:12
Control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages:2
Public policy:6
Alcohol taxation and price:14
Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionScore
School setting
School policies:Full provision
Expert's comments:Norms and agreements how to deal with pupils having problems with illicit drugs (consumption or distribution) are set in Education and Administrative Chart (developed by Ministry of Education). Illicit drugs,alcohol and tobacco consumption is strictly forbidden at the school premises, violation by pupil must be solved always with parents or persons who take legal care over the child.
Total smoking ban in schools:Full provision
Expert's comments:Total smoking ban in school was set by the Act No. 377/2004 of Col. on protection of non-smokers as amended.
Community setting
Development of community plans:Full provision
Expert's comments:Principles and tasks of several SK National programmes and/or Action plans (related to prevention, health promotion, antidrug strategy for legal and illicit drugs, prevention of criminality, rights of children, state policy for children and youths, etc ) are included into the Educational and Administrative Chart (developed by Ministry of Education) binding on each school, and all school facilities. The Chart (Pedagogicko-organiza��n�� pokyny in slovak language, hereafter POP) provides the framework and individual schools and school facilities have free hand in forms/types of activities, events and programmes implemented in local settings. For instance the school year 2012/13 POP is to recommend the programmes and activities within those questions: Safety and prevention,healthy life style,elimination of the risky behaviour, truancy, safe internet, prevention of human trafficking, prevention of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs consumption.
Interagency work at community level:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Formal interagency is limited and depends on local/regional terms - and people I would say - mostly financial. On the other hand in each locality/teritory there are the elements of "Prevention System" starting with school coordinators, school psychologists, medical professionals,psychologists and pegagogues from Psychological and Preventive Centres, through church, local administrative commisions, police (state and community), local NGO, etc.and these "elements" cooperate among them on informal way.
Community support, involvement and empowerment systems:No information
Training for community groups:No information
Youth centres or youth counselling centres:No provision
Expert's comments:Existing Youth centres or youths counselling centres are not aimed on drug prevention, however they should be able to give advice where to go, and/or what to do
Mobile teams for young people:No provision
Expert's comments:Mobile teams are rare. There were some "night patrols" in some slovak cities compositing from parents,municipal police staff and young member, such teams were acting to accompagne young people - teenagers from night clubs.
Offer of alternatives to drugs:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Alternatives to drug use and also some other forms of risk behaviour are offered in the Centres of Leisure in forms of creative writing, photography, sport and outdoor activities - tourism,rock-climbing,biking etc. There was rather big activity of NGO named "Take a ball, not the drugs" who has organised a competition among schools in "Eton fives" for 8 years. Last year (2012) 8000 boys and girls form Eastern Slovakia participated in the competition.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0)

Universal prevention [?]

MUSTAP programmes in 2015
OptionScore
Number of MUSTAP programmes:3
Main component:Affective education (self-esteem, self image)
Delivery mode:Interactive: predominantly role play, discussions, group work
Duration (months):9.66
Coverage (pupils per year):33224
SCHOOLS: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Beneficial
Personal and social skills:No provision
Likely to be beneficial
Interventions specifically for girls:No provision
Interventions specifically for boys:No provision
Tradeoff between benefits and harm
Events for parents:Full provision
Expert's comments:Parents��evenings are regular, but they are not specially aimed on drug prevention - they are aimed on education process and pupils��results.Of course if some problems concerning drug problem in general it is presented ( for instance warning on new psychoactive substances in legal market). Special parents��s evenings of such type are rare, but they exists. Individual problems of individual pupil are discussed only with his/her parents and possiblities how to help him/her are proposed (to visit Psychological and Preventive Centre or school psychologist)
Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches:Full provision
Expert's comments:The training of peers is provided in the Psychological and Preventive Centres. Than they act in non-formal activities mostly and/or in structured programmes.
Unlikely to be beneficial
Creative extracurricular activities:Full provision
Expert's comments:Creative extracurricular activities are the agenda of school/community Centres for leisure time
Testing pupils for drugs:Full provision
Expert's comments:Drug testing of pupils in schools is not possible - in the suspicion of drug consumption, and after the approval of parents only health professionals and in healthcare premises can test urine,salives and/or blood.
Information days about drugs:Full provision
Expert's comments:Information days about drugs (illicit and legal and risk behaviour related to drugs and/or sexual behaviour) are organised during international commemoration days (in May - "Anti smoking" day, June - International Day against illicit drugs trafficking, December 1 st - AIDS/HIV )
Visits of law enforcement agents to schools:Extensive provision
Other external lecturers:Full provision
Expert's comments:Experts as physicians and psychologists are regularly taking part in school discussions on drug consumption and its consequences on health and personal development. Presentation of ex-users is limited
Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.):Full provision
Expert's comments:Information on drugs (all psychoactive substances) are included into school curricula and information are presented in various school subjects - biology, chemistry,ethics/religion, civics etc.
Non programme-based approach:Full provision
Expert's comments:Information on drugs and related prevention "messages" including social norms, competences are mostly the theme within the ethics/religion,civics and class-master lessons/subjects
FAMILY: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Family to family peer approaches:Rare provision
Expert's comments:These interventions are delivered by NGOs in some municipalities through events know as 'Family Days' ���children and parents together. These events are promoted and financed by relevant agencies of the Public Administration, such as the Offices of Public Health, the Offices for Labour, Social Affairs and Family Services, School Councils, Municipalities, Local Police, etc. NGOs can apply for grants to undertake this prevention activities to the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Social Affairs, and Ministry of Interior (Council for Criminality Prevention) and Ministry of Culture. However, these activities targeting families are rarely provided. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs).
Family or parents meetings and evenings:Limited provision
Expert's comments:School administrators and pedagogues along with the prevention coordinator within the school system deliver these interventions. The interventions include information on protective and risk factors seeking to involve parents in organizing attractive forms of prevention for their children targeting alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Trainings are hardly provided although they are available in some locations. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs).
Manualised parenting programmes:Limited provision
Expert's comments:The school prevention programme The Way to Emotional Maturity targeting 12-15 year-olds, includes one module with a family dimension, training parents to communicate with their children and cope with problems. The programme, developed by the Slovak psychologist ��tefan Matula from the Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology began its implementation in 1999 and, up until now, almost 400,000 children have attended it. A cluster randomized control trial regarding the effectiveness of the school-based intervention Unplugged was carried out in Slovakia, within the framework of a research project, and the programme was validated. However, the programme is not commonly applied in schools and further research is needed before its implementation into regular practice. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:2 (EU average: 0.8)

Selective prevention [?]

Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionLevel of intervention
Early school leavers:No provision
Expert's comments:Truancy is observed by schools and date on numbers of absenting school lessons are statistically processed (by statistical agency of Education resort,what is Institute of Information and Prognosis in Education). In general the truancy is growing - measured by the number of school lessons/hours absented - the leaders are pupils in grade 6.-9. of Elementary schools and pupils in vocational school 15-18 years old, mostly in regions of Eastern Slovakia with the highest concentration of socially marginalised (Roma) inhabitants/settlements. Problems with truancy are (in individual cases) the agenda of Psychological and Preventive Centres (come in-structures.) Problems with truancy in "group mode" are partly discussed by social workers and/or so called healthcare asistants acting in Roma settlements.
Pupils with social, academic problems:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:The National Antidrug Strategy appeals for high attention paid to risk groups, (not explicitly to the types of risk/vulnerable groups) and to support monitoring and evaluation of activities in selective and indicative level of prevention. Also some other political documents and/or Action plans appeal on concentration on problems of risk groups ( risk behaviour, criminal offences, trafficking of people). The education sector disposes of "come structures" (Psychological and preventive Centres,Diagnostic Centres,Therapeutical Sanatories and Re-education Centres), sectors of social affairs and sector of health dispose by "go-structures".
Immigrants:No provision
Expert's comments:Immigrants are included into concept of vulnerable and risk group
Ethnic groups:Limited provision
Expert's comments:The wording "ethnic group/s" is not used in SK officialy. There are concept of vulnerable and risk groups, incl. socially marginalised/excluded and multifold affected population - mostly of Roma ethnic, but not exclusively (homeless people,unemployed, young people left from state care ...)
Homeless young people:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Homeless youth are mentioned in social policies explicitly - the question how to deal with young people who were up to their legal ful- age (18 years) in orphanages or some other forms of state care
Young offenders:Limited provision
Expert's comments:If young offenders are minors (14-18 years) there are special re-education centres (of residental care) and also special penitertiary facility for young offenders - "come structures"
Young people in care institutions:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Some type of helping structures services (go and come) are provide by NGOs
Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Not explicitly mentioned in social policies or in drug strategy. It is much more question of "public nuissance" raised by individuals and/or groups in communities and it is the agenda of social workers and community/municipal police and authorities
Substance abuse in family:No provision
Expert's comments:see 3.1.2 At risk families which are key agenda of social affairs and family sector are all types mentioned, i.e. substance abuse, inluding alcohol, socially disadvantaged parents,family conflict and neglect, criminal behaviour, mental health problems and ethnic families.
Socially disadvantaged parents:Rare provision
Family conflict and neglect:No provision
Criminal justice problems in family:No provision
Families with mental health problems:No provision
Ethnic families in marginalisation:Rare provision
Expert's comments:As was said before there is no such wording as ethnic family - socially marginalised and excluded families are involved in social agenda and there are special programme of social assistance for Roma settlements done by social workers and also the special programme of Healthcare sector in form of "health assistents" who are acting in Roma communities.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:2 (EU average: 0.6)

List of published studies

Environmental strategies

  • Currently no published studies to display

Universal prevention

  • Pétiová et al. (2010). Risk and Protective Factors of Drug Consumption in Youth in the Slovak Republic , Institute of Information and Prognoses of Education – Department for Prevention and Research in Young People;  Bratislava 2010, ISBN 978-80-7098-486-4, 72 p.
  • Niklová, M.(2009). Prevention of Drug Addictions in the Environment of Elementary and Secondary Schools, Alkoholizmus a drogové závislosti,4/2009 p. 35- 44.

Selective prevention

  • Čavarová, J. (2009). Riešenie problému liečby a prevencie drogových závislostí v podmienkach väzenstva Slovenskej republiky (Solving the problem of treatment and prevention of drug addiction in prison conditions of the Slovak Republic), In: Social Prevention, 4/2009, p. 17-20, ISSN 1336-9679.
  • Czuczorová E.(2010). Selective Interventions of Social System for Vulnerable Children and Families and Social Reintegration Policies, incl. reintegration of drug users after release from prison  A Report for NMCD, unpublished.

Indicated prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

 

Glossary of terms used

Definitions and further explanations for many of the terms used in the 'prevention profiles' are given below.

Alcohol Control Score (ACS)

The values for the alcohol control score are taken from Lindeman, M., Karlsson, T. & Österberg, E. (2015) 'Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe Reframing Addictions Project', ALICERAP Area 5, Workpackage 14.1. In constructing the scale, the Bridging the Gap(BtG) scale and its weights were used as a starting point. These weights were adjusted and validated by referring to state of the art research on evidence-based practice in the field of alcohol policy to measure the strictness and comprehensiveness of alcohol policies. Maximum 160 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages (max. 40);
  • age limits and personal control (max. 24);
  • control of drunk driving (max. 24);
  • control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages (max. 24);
  • public policy (max. 8) and;
  • alcohol taxation and price (max. 40).
Beneficial

Beneficial interventions are defined as those interventions for which precise measures of the effects in favour of the treatment were found in the systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Come-structures

The target group is expected to contact existing services by their own initiative: the user comes to the service.

Community support, involvement and empowerment systems

The informal and personal support and reference systems (the 'significant others') of community members: the involvement of family members, mentors, teachers, peers and others respected by the target groups.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Creative extracurricular activities

Activities organised by schools, mainly for the purposes of drug prevention, usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus, such as workshops, sports, photography, art, drama, etc. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Criminal justice problems in family

Families where parents or offspring have criminal record problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Development of community plans

Community plans that include a (drug) prevention strategy.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early detection mechanisms in school

Early identification mechanisms for intervention in pupils with risk behaviours related to drug use, an initiative where with universal and indicated prevention overlap. Often, universal programmes that address, for instance, school climate and social interactions include techniques to identify vulnerable pupils to be then catered for in more targeted interventions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early school leavers

Young people who have left school or are not attending regularly (not necessarily because of drug use).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Evaluation activity

Evaluation is defined here as the systematic and scientific collection, processing and analysis of data related to the implementation of an intervention, in order to assess whether the objectives of an intervention have been achieved. The evaluation activity is based on entries in the Exchange on Drug Demand Reduction Action (EDDRA) database, an online archive of evaluated interventions in drug demand reduction implemented in EMCDDA member countries. Entries are submitted to the database by focal points within each country.

Evaluation activity score

The evaluation activity score for a given type of prevention is derived from the share of projects entered by a country into EDDRA since 2000 for that type of prevention. Projects in EDDRA are rated by a quality level, which assesses the quality of the intervention evaluation (see the EDDRA quality levels page for more information). The different quality levels of the entries are weighted in the score (1 lowest) to 3 (highest). Therefore the number of prevention interventions in EDDRA is a proxy for the activity level in systematically designing and evaluating interventions in a country's prevention culture, and does not reflect the overall number of existing prevention projects.

Environmental strategies

Environmental strategies are prevention strategies aimed at altering the immediate cultural, social, physical and economic environments in which people make their choices about drug use. This perspective takes into account that individuals do not become involved with substances solely on the basis of personal characteristics but are rather influenced by perceived norms, values and informal rules in their communities. See Environmental strategies for more information.

Ethnic families in marginalisation

Families whose migration background obstructs social integration into local community.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Ethnic groups

Groups that have lived for more than one generation (or much longer) in a country while preserving their own identity, norms, values and language.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Events for parents

Activities for parents organised by schools and usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family conflict and neglect

Conflictive or dysfunctional families where neglect might occur.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Families with mental health problems

Families where parents or offspring have mental health, e.g. depression.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family or parents meetings and evenings

Organization of events for parents or th entire family.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family to family peer approaches

Family to family peer approaches are techniques aiming to involve families in prevention activities or networks through other families, with a snowbolling effect.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Gini inequality index

The Gini inequality index measures income inequality between the richest decile of a population and the poorest. It ranges from 0 (everyone has the same income) to 100 (one person has all the income) and is a good proxy for social inequality. Most countries range between 25 and 60.

The impact of social inequality on health gained attention with the controversy over Pickett and Wilkinson’s (2010) assertion that problems like substance use, teenage pregnancies, violence etc. are higher in more unequal societies because of the increased competition for status and positional goods affects people’s physiological and physical well-being. A WHO (CSDH, 2008) report and the Marmot Review (2010) for the UK confirmed that inequalities in health including substance use problems are related to social inequality.

We have included the Gini inequality index for three reasons:

  1. Social inequality seems to be a crucial environmental condition that affects people's health choices (including substance use) and is — together with alcohol and tobacco policies — a framework condition that can act against or in support of prevention interventions. Prevention efforts and their overall effects need to be viewed in the context of these determinants.
  2. It puts into plausible context why some more equal societies, e.g. the Scandinavian countries and particularly Finland, focus less on single programmes to curb the emergence of problems but rather rely on social inclusion policies at all relevant levels: family, school, community and society.
  3. More unequal countries might need more sophisticated prevention programmes. There is evidence that such prevention programmes can reduce the effects of social inequality on behavioural outcomes. For instance: some universal programmes  have selectively (differentially) better effects on the more vulnerable, within the children exposed (Ialongo et al. 1999; Kellam et al. 2008); selective family-based programmes are more effective the more vulnerable the families are (Kumpfer et al. 2008; Webster-Stratton 2001); and also indicated programme  can bring the most behaviourally difficult children to better social functioning (see the EMCDDA thematic paper 'Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents', 2009).
Go-structures

The target group is proactively approached and involved, for example at home or on the street: the service goes to the user.

Homeless young people

Young people who have fled their families or care institutions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Immigrants

Groups that have recently arrived in a country and may be striving to adapt culturally and economically.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Indicated prevention

Indicated prevention aims to identify individuals who are exhibiting behaviours that are highly correlated with an individual risk of developing substance abuse later in their lives (such as psychiatric disorder, school failure, dissocial behaviour, etc.) or, displaying early signs of problematic substance use, and to target them with special interventions. See Indicated prevention for more information.

Information days about drugs

Organisation of drug information days and activities. Also project weeks, competitions, exhibitions, etc., organised on the theme of drug information. Full days (not just a lesson). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interangency work at community level

Interagency work refers to the formal and institutional networks and support systems within a community. It offers community members a broad and coordinated network system including services for needs of the individual, e.g. social welfare, housing, family mediation etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for boys

Boy-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for girls

Girl-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Likely to be beneficial

Interventions which are likely to be beneifical are interventions that were shown to have limited measures of effect, that are likely to be effective but for which evidence is limited.

Level of provision (based on expert opinion) in reporting year

Level of provision information is based on information provided to the EMCDDA through structured questionnaires from the Reitox national focal point in the country in question. These questionnaires are filled in by an expert, or panel of experts, in each country, submitted to the EMCDDA over the Internet, and the responses form the basis of the 'level of provision' data provided in the prevention profiles. The 'About "prevention profiles"' page provides further information, including access to the structured questionnaires.

Level of provision ratings

For readability purposes, the level of provision (based on expert opinion) ratings may be used in a shortened form in a country's prevention profile. The shortened form and the corresponding full term (as it appeared in the questionnaire are given here). 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Manualised parenting programmes

Programmes that are implemented in a modular structured format with defined contents and respective lessons.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Mobile teams for young people

Prevention teams (but not mobile teams for IDUs, nor outreach teams for high risk groups). They are popular in the Nordic countries.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

MUSTAP programmes

MUSTAP programmes are defined as structured, standardised and multi-session interventions with detailed material and manuals and concrete contents for each lesson.

MUSTAP: Coverage (pupils per year)

The total number of students who participated in the MUSTAP programmes in the reporting year.

MUSTAP: delivery mode

The delivery mode can be:

  • Interactive: More than 50 % of the sessions consist of role play, discussions, group work, etc. Increases effectiveness.
  • Didactic/frontal: Delivery of interventions is through frontal teaching. Reduces effectiveness.
MUSTAP: duration (months)

The mean duration of the programmes in months.

MUSTAP: main component

There are five possible components for MUSTAP programmes:

  • Personal skills: Increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives).
  • Social skills: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure.
  • Normative beliefs: Correct the very widespread belief of young people that drug consumption among their peers is normal, accepted and frequent. An effective component.
  • Affective education: Aim to increase self-esteem by developing individual feelings of self-worth and value. Students are taught to accept and play down failings and difficulties. Self-labelling of failure is discouraged. No proof of effectiveness.
  • Information provision : Provide information about drugs, their effects and dangers. No proof of effectiveness when delivered alone.
Number of MUSTAP programmes

Total number of MUSTAP programmes implemented in the reporting year.

Number of published studies

The number of published studies is defined as the total number of studies evaluating interventions relating to this type of prevention within the country, published in scientific journals, (mostly) as reported through the Reitox network in the previous 2 years.

Offer of alternatives to drugs

The involvement of 'participants' in sport, outdoor pursuits, creative writing, photography, art, etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Other external lecturers

E.g. ex-users, experts, physicians providing information about drugs and their risks. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non programme-based approach:

This approach is in contrast to a programme-based approach in that there is no specific programme or module in the syllabus dealing with prevention. Instead, teachers freely deliver, prevention-related content on an ad hoc or as-needed basis, so that prevention material is spread over different school activities and disciplines. It is often referred to as an 'holistic' or 'ecological' approach. Its scope is much broader than providing just information on drugs as it might also include norms, social competences etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches

Peer leaders (often popular pupils) are trained to deliver prevention related content or messages to other pupils. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.)

Only the provision of information on drugs (risks associated with drug use, facts, etc.) is included within school curricula or various school subjects. There is no component aimed at developing personal and social skills for example, (e.g through role playing exercises, or by open discussion in the classroom). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Personal and social skills

Personal and/or social skills training (outside standardised programmes) as a specific intervention method (tools, manuals, trainings). Personal skills include: increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives). Social skills include: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure. Beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Pupils with social, academic problems

Young people deemed at risk of abandoning school because of low achievement, lack of support from home or other social problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

School policies

Norms and agreements regarding illicit drug consumption in a given school, e.g. how to deal with pupils using, or dealing, illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Selective prevention

Selective prevention specifically addresses the vulnerability of specific sub-populations whose risk of a disorder is significantly higher than average. Often this higher vulnerability to problem drug use stems from social exclusion, e.g. for young offenders, school drop-outs, or students, who are failing academically. See Selective prevention for more information.

Substance abuse in family

Families, where parents or siblings have substance abuse problems (including alcohol).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Socially disadvantaged parents

Families with low socio-economic level including unemployment.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco and alcohol policies

The Tobacco Control Scale and the Alcohol Control Score indicate to which extent the availability, normality and 'acceptability' of tobacco and alcohol are addressed in countries' policies.

Testing pupils for drugs

Pupils can be tested for drugs in school premises. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco Control Scale (TCS)

The Tobacco Control Scale is a scale designed to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Maximum 100 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • price of cigarettes and other tobacco products (max. 30);
  • smoke free work and other public places (max. 22);
  • spending on public information campaigns (max. 15);
  • comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion (max. 13);
  • large direct health warning labels (max. 10) and;
  • treatment to help dependent smokers stop (max. 10).

For more information see Joossens, L. and Raw M., (2014), 'The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe' (external link)

Total smoking ban in schools

Smoking is forbidden in the entire school premises, both for pupils and teachers.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tradeoff between benefits and harms

Tradeoff between benefits and harms refers to interventions that obtained measures of effects but that have limitations and/or adverse effects and which therefore need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis before implementing them.

Training for community groups

Training in prevention and empowerment for existing groups within communities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family

Organization of specific training activities with family. It includes coaching sessions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Universal prevention

Universal prevention strategies address the entire population (national, local community, school, neighbourhood) with messages and programmes aimed at preventing or delaying the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. See Universal prevention for more information.

Unlikely to be beneficial

Interventions ared defined as 'unlikely to be beneficial' when there are not enough studies or where available studies are of low quality.

Visits of law enforcement agents to schools

In some Member States, police have a role in schools, which can be anything from carrying out prevention interventions to strengthening the law and rules. Often they provide information about drugs. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in care institutions

Young people who are in state institutions like e.g. shelter houses, orphanages, etc., but not prisons or other incarceration facilities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young offenders

Young people who have been in contact with the criminal justice system, mainly because of possession of illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Youth centres or youth counselling centres

A youth centre is a dedicated premises within a community, offering a drop-in facility for youth. Youth centres may include sports and other recreational facilities as well as advice and counselling services.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods

Young people in neighbourhoods with higher use and availability of substances, delinquency and a poor housing, socio-economic and demographic situation.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.


About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

Contact us

EMCDDA
Praça Europa 1, Cais do Sodré
1249-289 Lisbon
Portugal
Tel. (351) 211 21 02 00
Fax (351) 218 13 17 11

More contact options >>

Page last updated: Friday, 08 April 2016