EMCDDA Home
  • EN
Search

Prevention profiles

What are countries in Europe doing to prevent illicit drug use? These drug 'Prevention profiles' try to answer this question by providing information based on expert appraisal of the level of provision of different prevention interventions in Europe.

The latest update (April 2016) contains additional entries for family based approaches in universal prevention (family to family peer approaches, family or parents meetings and evenings, trainings for family, manualised parenting programmes) and in selective prevention (targeting substance abuse in family, socially disadvantaged parents, family conflict and neglect, criminal justice problems in family, families with mental health problems, ethnic families in marginalisation). These newly added items have been created in a pilot project, which involved a panel of experts from different societal sectors in each country. Therefore the information is not available for all EU countries. We have also added the detailed sub-categories of the Alcohol Control Score (only in the Country-by-country tab).

 

 
 

Prevention profile: Lithuania

��

Environmental strategies [?]

Tobacco and alcohol policies
OptionScore
Gini inequality index:32 (EU-27 average: 30.6)
Tobacco Control Scale:35 (EU average: 46.2)
Alcohol Control Score:82.5 (EU average: 71.2)
Breakdown of Alcohol Control Score
Control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages:17
Age limits and personal control:18
Control of drunk driving:14
Control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages:9.5
Public policy:6
Alcohol taxation and price:18
Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionScore
School setting
School policies:Full provision
Expert's comments:Drug use in Lithuanian schools is prohibited by the national legal regulations and the school's internal rules of procedures. This provision is set in the internal rules of procedure and the student code of conduct of every Lithuanian school. National rules which describe how to deal with students using or distributing drugs are set in the Description for organizing of determining children using narcotics, psychotropic and other psychoactive substances (Resolution No. 437 of Government of the Republic of Lithuania, April 2, 2002). The aim of early intervention is to help those who have tried to use psychoactive substances or are experimenting with them, to encourage children not to use these substances. Having identified a child uses psychoactive substances the following early intervention measures are implemented: ������ assessment of psychological, social problems of a child using psychoactive substances; ������ selection of intervention methods and means matching the child������s needs and drawing up an intervention plan; ������ involvement of the child������s parents (guardians, carers), other family members into the implementation of the intervention plan; ������ individual/group counselling and psychological assistance, counselling of the child������s family; ������ modelling of socially acceptable behaviour; ������ development of social and healthy lifestyle habits. The early intervention services are provided before mental or behavioural disorders due to use of psychoactive substances are identified. Following the Procedure of Early (for Schoolchildren) Identification of Use of Psychoactive Substances, a school (specifically ������ the head of a school or persons authorised by him/her) assumes responsibility to report a suspicion that a child uses drugs, psychotropic or other psychoactive substances, is intoxicated with such substances and that he needs medical check-ups to his/her legal representatives. Solely health care specialists can identify the use of psychoactive substances.
Total smoking ban in schools:Full provision
Expert's comments:The ban on smoking at school and within the territory of school is governed by the Law on Tobacco Control of the Republic of Lithuania, Article 14. It provides that the smoking in the Republic of Lithuania is prohibited in all education, training, health care facilities, as well as rooms where sports competitions and other public events are being held.
Community setting
Development of community plans:Full provision
Expert's comments:For the management of regional and local government programs on drug control and prevention, in 2004-2005 municipalities and regional administrations established drug control commissions and approved their statutes and programs. The objective of these commissions is to conduct the national drug control and prevention of drug addiction policy and to coordinate drug control and prevention of drug addiction activities on the territory of the local governments. Also there are established Municipality Public Health Bureau, which are responsible for the healthy life education and promotion as well as for community������s concentration for fighting against drugs. Prevention is one of the four priorities in National Drug controle and prevention programme 2010-2016.
Interagency work at community level:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Drug control commissions of municipalities involve representatives from NGO, municipal and government institutions. Commission coordinates drug control and drug prevention activities implementation at local level.
Community support, involvement and empowerment systems:Limited provision
Expert's comments:In Lithuania drug prevention activities are formed and implemented through drug prevention projects. State institutions provide financial support for NGO seeking to promote initiatives of NGO to implement psychoactive substance use prevention in communities for such targets groups as family, school, high-risk children and youths, etc. State and municipality institutions and organizations provide support organizing and conducting various trainings for the specialists and experts. Municipalities has educational centres, which has right to carry out qualification improvement of pedagogues, form masters, social pedagogues, public health care specialists and primary health care specialists. Municipality Pedagogical-Psychological Servises, Municipality Public Health Bureau, Drug Control Commissions of Municipalities also conduct training for specialist.
Training for community groups:Extensive provision
Youth centres or youth counselling centres:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:There are established Lithuanian child day centers, psychological support center for youth, day centres for child and youth at risk. There is the service of helpline for child and youth, which provide psychological support for child and youth by phone, e-mail and post. For youth there are established youth centers and open youth centers/spaces (Open space is a space or premise, intended and accommodated for performance of open work with youth, i.e. could be situated in the institution (cultural, educational, sports, or social) without changing legal status of institution and accommodated for open work with youth applying the available measure or methodical base). Every municipality has youth affair coordinator, who helps to form and implement youth policy in municipality.
Mobile teams for young people:Rare provision
Expert's comments:There is one mobile groupe under the Child protection office in Vilnius working in the field of children rights protection.
Offer of alternatives to drugs:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Untill 2009 state institutions and municipalities, NGO (Ministy of Science and Education, Ministry of Social Security and Labor, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Culture) were actively involved in organizing and implementing drug prevention actions which related to youth and children purposeful occupation and socialization. Due to economic crisis as well as to lower allocation there was no priority of organizing and carrying of drug prevention projects in 2009. In 2009 only one institution - the Drug Control Department under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania financed prevention activities implemented by NGO. The Program on Prevention of Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Psychoactive Substances approved by Decree No. ISAK-494, of March 17, 2006, of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania (Zin., 2006, No. 33-1197) was implemented.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0)

Universal prevention [?]

MUSTAP programmes in 2015
OptionScore
Number of MUSTAP programmes:1
Main component:Knowledge (about drugs and consequences)
Delivery mode:Didactic: delivery through frontal teaching
Duration (months):8
Coverage (pupils per year):440000
SCHOOLS: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Beneficial
Personal and social skills:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Lithuania is implementing different programmes for the development of social skills, such as Life Skills Education Programme for children of all ages, Social Skills Training Programme for elementary school students, Social Skills Training Programme for elementary school students, programmes "Unplugged", "����Snowball " and etc. Educational facilities in some local municipalities carried out special activities to develop social skills of pupils in order to help them to become more resistant to possibilities of drug, alcohol or tobacco abuse.
Likely to be beneficial
Interventions specifically for girls:No provision
Interventions specifically for boys:No provision
Tradeoff between benefits and harm
Events for parents:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Parents are also involved into drug prevention policy applied in schools, though not all types of events are arranged specially for them. Usually parents are participating in lectures and seminars that take place at school. Schools organize their own on-demand events for parents. Some schools organize get-togethers, joint events with children, parents clubs. There are schools which implements special prevention programmes like psychoactive substance use prevention programme for students, psychoactive substance use prevention programme for parents of pupils, school for parents and teachers����, Parent Effectiveness Training Programmes���� (PET) and others.
Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches:Limited provision
Expert's comments:50 Lithuanian schools participates in the programme "����Peers to peers"����; the programme is based on the principles of method "����Forum Theatre"����.
Unlikely to be beneficial
Creative extracurricular activities:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Organization of workshops, lectures, discussions, competitions, prevention actions, sports activities (arrangements, tournaments), preparation and creation of reports, posters, wall newspapers are traditional forms of prevention policy and are applied in schools.
Testing pupils for drugs:No provision
Expert's comments:Testing of pupils for the use of drugs is not applied in Lithuanian schools. There is no any compulsory drug testing of pupils in schools, if there is any suspicion that pupil is using drugs, all necessary testing can be carried out in health care institutions, but not in the school. Every child has a right to demand for it's legal representative (parents, tutors and etc.) or for a representative of state children rights protection agency to participate in drug testing procedure.
Information days about drugs:Limited provision
Expert's comments:School - based prevention of drug abuse in Lithuania include project weeks, competitions, expositions and etc. but all such activities in schools is not organized on a full day basis (there is no special days when all activity in school is organized only for prevention work). One third of the Lithuanian schools participate in the annual contest "Non-smoking class"����. The competition (contest) involves pupils of eight classes. Open only to the class in which at least 90 percent. students agree with the condition of the tender - do not smoke for six months.
Visits of law enforcement agents to schools:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Police involvement in drug abuse prevention projects and programs implemented in schools is commonly used. Usually this involvement means lectures, seminars, discussions and other types of meetings with police officers who are describing risks and dangers of drug abuse to pupils, their parents and representatives of organizations, which works with children. During these meetings police officers are also giving advices about prevention of drug abuse and express their opinion about drug abuse.
Other external lecturers:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Inolvement of other external lecturers in drug abuse prevention projects and programs is very commonly used. As with police officers, involvement of external lecturers means lectures, seminars, discussions and other meetings of such kind arranged for pupils, their parents and other related persons. With regard to the specificity of these external lecturers, it is important to mention that they usually are medical personnel from certain health authorities, officials from judicial system (not only police officers, but also judges, prosecutors and etc.), members of non-governmental organizations which task is drug abuse prevention. Nurses of school communities works in much of the schools. One of the features of their work is to teach people a healthy lifestyle.
Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.):Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Integrated lessons about healthy way of living is also part of drug prevention policy in schools. Information about drugs and other psychoactive substances (emphasizing different aspects about dangers of their abuse) for pupils are provided during lessons of biology, religion and ethics. Information about drugs may be included in to learning material of these subjects, though not all schools use this opportunity and integrated lessons at this moment remains only as additional (not main) method of drug abuse prevention.
Non programme-based approach:No provision
FAMILY: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Family to family peer approaches:No information
Family or parents meetings and evenings:No information
Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family:No information
Manualised parenting programmes:No information
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0.8)

Selective prevention [?]

Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionLevel of intervention
Early school leavers:Rare provision
Expert's comments:There are no special provisions in legal acts which specifically regulates drug prevention among early school leavers. Drug prevention in this particular population segment is based on general provisions and principles which are applied to all children and people of young age. All prevention work is carried out in educational facilities (schools, professional schools, colleges and etc.) by social pedagogues, social workers, teachers and other school personal. So early school leavers are able to access and participate in drug prevention programs implemented and sponsored by ministry of Education and Science when they use services of educational facilities. The Program for Reinstatement to School of Children who are not attending School adopted by the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania (��in., 2008, No. 140-5558) states the main interventions seeking to solve the problem of not attendance school. It could be in the schools area, where social educators are responsible to notice, assess as well as to solve the problem of not attendance school, other academic and social problems in time. Also it could be out of school e.g. in Municipality Pedagogical-Psychological Servises which focus on working with children and their parents concerning psychological, academic and social problems. Last shift for not attendance school could be minimum care according to the Law of child���s minimum and medium care (Zin., 2007, No. 80-3214, Zin., 2010, No. 157-7969). According this law in shools and municipalities there are Child welfare commissions, wich deal with drug control and drug prevention questions besides other its responsibilities too. The minimum care measures can be applied to children who do not learn or do not attend regular school. Several measures can be applied: obligation to attend specialist consultations, obligation to study according to basic education programs, obligation to attend a day centre, obligation to participate in social education, integration, prevention and other programs. These measures can be implemented at schools, municipal and non-governmental institutions.
Pupils with social, academic problems:Rare provision
Expert's comments:There are no special provisions in legal acts which specifically regulates drug prevention among pupils with social, academic problems but it is important to mention, that pupils with social, academic problemas are included in group of children with special needs and in group of children at social risk (such as delinquent children, children from families with social problems, children who already suffered from drug abuse and etc.). Every year (until 2009 year) the Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania was implementing various prevention programs: Program for Organization of Summer Holidays for Children, Program for Crime Prevention Among Children, National Program for Control of Drugs and Prevention of Drug Abuse, Program for Purposeful Occupation of Children. With help of these programs children who are at social risk were able to access summer recreation in special camps for free and to have additional upbringing after lessons in school. All these measures were implemented in order to decrease risk of delinquent behavior among children of social risk and to prevent use of drugs and other psychoactive substances. Due to economic crisis as well as to lower allocation there was no priority of organizing and carrying of prevention programs by the Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania. In 2009 only one institution ��� Drug Control Department under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania ��� financed prevention activities implemented by NGO. The Program on Prevention of Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Psychoactive Substances approved by Decree of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania (��in., 2006, No. 33-1197) is currently implemented. All prevention work is carried out in educational facilities (schools, professional schools, colleges and etc.) by social pedagogues, social workers, teachers and other school personnel as well as in Municipality Pedagogical-Psychological Services focus on working with children and their parents concerning psychological, academic and social problems.
Immigrants:No provision
Expert's comments:Adequate assistance for every person in need is provided. If the migrant people have acquired the status of legal citizenship they will be entitled to the same services to all individuals in Lithuania.
Ethnic groups:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:For different social groups social support is provided without discrimination on grounds of sex, race, religion, age, ethnic origin and other. In 2008-2010 was implemented National Programme for Roma integration into Lithuania society.
Homeless young people:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:The Law of Social Services sets out the target group - homeless youth - which is involved in the definition of child at social risk. Drug abuse prevention for childs at social risk is organized by Drug Control Department through support to announce tenders of selective prevention projects. The prevention for such target group is implemented through project as well as through day centers.
Young offenders:Rare provision
Young people in care institutions:Rare provision
Expert's comments:There are no special provisions in legal acts which specifically regulates drug prevention among youth in care institutions. Youth in care institution usually have psychological, social, academic problems, experience of psychoactive substances use, and can also be approached at schools by social pedagogues, social workers, teachers and other school personnel as well as in foster homes by psychologists, social pedagogues through various prevention programs, e.g. life skills education, drug prevention programs, etc. The Kaunas Juvenile Remand Prison and Correction House implements from 2013 the Program of early intervention carried by Drug, Tobacco and Alcohol Department for users of psychoactive substances.
Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods:Rare provision
Expert's comments:According The Law on Social Services municipality is responsible for providing social attendence for families at social risk and social care for adults at social risk. Social attendance for families at social risk should be financed from funds of a municipal budget and from special targeted subsidies of the state budget to municipal budgets.
Substance abuse in family:Limited provision
Socially disadvantaged parents:No provision
Expert's comments:Social services in every municipality are be provided to a family at social risk by helping to develop the social skills and motivation of family members to create a safe, healthy and harmonious environment at home and to participate in the labour market. Reponsibility for organizing this services lays on municipalities, but targeted subsidies from state budget are available for municipalities and these subsidies covers the main part of the funds needed for providing this kind of services.
Family conflict and neglect:No provision
Expert's comments:Family conflict and violence are defined by Lithuanian Seimas Law of protection from domectic violence (Zin., 2011, No. 72-3475). There is a Mother and Child Crisis Center in Vilnius, in which mothers can live temporarily because of suffered violence in their family.
Criminal justice problems in family:No provision
Families with mental health problems:No provision
Ethnic families in marginalisation:No provision
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0.6)

List of published studies

Environmental strategies

  • Currently no published studies to display

Universal prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

Selective prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

Indicated prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

Glossary of terms used

Definitions and further explanations for many of the terms used in the 'prevention profiles' are given below.

Alcohol Control Score (ACS)

The values for the alcohol control score are taken from Lindeman, M., Karlsson, T. & Österberg, E. (2015) 'Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe Reframing Addictions Project', ALICERAP Area 5, Workpackage 14.1. In constructing the scale, the Bridging the Gap(BtG) scale and its weights were used as a starting point. These weights were adjusted and validated by referring to state of the art research on evidence-based practice in the field of alcohol policy to measure the strictness and comprehensiveness of alcohol policies. Maximum 160 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages (max. 40);
  • age limits and personal control (max. 24);
  • control of drunk driving (max. 24);
  • control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages (max. 24);
  • public policy (max. 8) and;
  • alcohol taxation and price (max. 40).
Beneficial

Beneficial interventions are defined as those interventions for which precise measures of the effects in favour of the treatment were found in the systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Come-structures

The target group is expected to contact existing services by their own initiative: the user comes to the service.

Community support, involvement and empowerment systems

The informal and personal support and reference systems (the 'significant others') of community members: the involvement of family members, mentors, teachers, peers and others respected by the target groups.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Creative extracurricular activities

Activities organised by schools, mainly for the purposes of drug prevention, usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus, such as workshops, sports, photography, art, drama, etc. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Criminal justice problems in family

Families where parents or offspring have criminal record problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Development of community plans

Community plans that include a (drug) prevention strategy.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early detection mechanisms in school

Early identification mechanisms for intervention in pupils with risk behaviours related to drug use, an initiative where with universal and indicated prevention overlap. Often, universal programmes that address, for instance, school climate and social interactions include techniques to identify vulnerable pupils to be then catered for in more targeted interventions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early school leavers

Young people who have left school or are not attending regularly (not necessarily because of drug use).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Evaluation activity

Evaluation is defined here as the systematic and scientific collection, processing and analysis of data related to the implementation of an intervention, in order to assess whether the objectives of an intervention have been achieved. The evaluation activity is based on entries in the Exchange on Drug Demand Reduction Action (EDDRA) database, an online archive of evaluated interventions in drug demand reduction implemented in EMCDDA member countries. Entries are submitted to the database by focal points within each country.

Evaluation activity score

The evaluation activity score for a given type of prevention is derived from the share of projects entered by a country into EDDRA since 2000 for that type of prevention. Projects in EDDRA are rated by a quality level, which assesses the quality of the intervention evaluation (see the EDDRA quality levels page for more information). The different quality levels of the entries are weighted in the score (1 lowest) to 3 (highest). Therefore the number of prevention interventions in EDDRA is a proxy for the activity level in systematically designing and evaluating interventions in a country's prevention culture, and does not reflect the overall number of existing prevention projects.

Environmental strategies

Environmental strategies are prevention strategies aimed at altering the immediate cultural, social, physical and economic environments in which people make their choices about drug use. This perspective takes into account that individuals do not become involved with substances solely on the basis of personal characteristics but are rather influenced by perceived norms, values and informal rules in their communities. See Environmental strategies for more information.

Ethnic families in marginalisation

Families whose migration background obstructs social integration into local community.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Ethnic groups

Groups that have lived for more than one generation (or much longer) in a country while preserving their own identity, norms, values and language.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Events for parents

Activities for parents organised by schools and usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family conflict and neglect

Conflictive or dysfunctional families where neglect might occur.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Families with mental health problems

Families where parents or offspring have mental health, e.g. depression.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family or parents meetings and evenings

Organization of events for parents or th entire family.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family to family peer approaches

Family to family peer approaches are techniques aiming to involve families in prevention activities or networks through other families, with a snowbolling effect.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Gini inequality index

The Gini inequality index measures income inequality between the richest decile of a population and the poorest. It ranges from 0 (everyone has the same income) to 100 (one person has all the income) and is a good proxy for social inequality. Most countries range between 25 and 60.

The impact of social inequality on health gained attention with the controversy over Pickett and Wilkinson’s (2010) assertion that problems like substance use, teenage pregnancies, violence etc. are higher in more unequal societies because of the increased competition for status and positional goods affects people’s physiological and physical well-being. A WHO (CSDH, 2008) report and the Marmot Review (2010) for the UK confirmed that inequalities in health including substance use problems are related to social inequality.

We have included the Gini inequality index for three reasons:

  1. Social inequality seems to be a crucial environmental condition that affects people's health choices (including substance use) and is — together with alcohol and tobacco policies — a framework condition that can act against or in support of prevention interventions. Prevention efforts and their overall effects need to be viewed in the context of these determinants.
  2. It puts into plausible context why some more equal societies, e.g. the Scandinavian countries and particularly Finland, focus less on single programmes to curb the emergence of problems but rather rely on social inclusion policies at all relevant levels: family, school, community and society.
  3. More unequal countries might need more sophisticated prevention programmes. There is evidence that such prevention programmes can reduce the effects of social inequality on behavioural outcomes. For instance: some universal programmes  have selectively (differentially) better effects on the more vulnerable, within the children exposed (Ialongo et al. 1999; Kellam et al. 2008); selective family-based programmes are more effective the more vulnerable the families are (Kumpfer et al. 2008; Webster-Stratton 2001); and also indicated programme  can bring the most behaviourally difficult children to better social functioning (see the EMCDDA thematic paper 'Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents', 2009).
Go-structures

The target group is proactively approached and involved, for example at home or on the street: the service goes to the user.

Homeless young people

Young people who have fled their families or care institutions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Immigrants

Groups that have recently arrived in a country and may be striving to adapt culturally and economically.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Indicated prevention

Indicated prevention aims to identify individuals who are exhibiting behaviours that are highly correlated with an individual risk of developing substance abuse later in their lives (such as psychiatric disorder, school failure, dissocial behaviour, etc.) or, displaying early signs of problematic substance use, and to target them with special interventions. See Indicated prevention for more information.

Information days about drugs

Organisation of drug information days and activities. Also project weeks, competitions, exhibitions, etc., organised on the theme of drug information. Full days (not just a lesson). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interangency work at community level

Interagency work refers to the formal and institutional networks and support systems within a community. It offers community members a broad and coordinated network system including services for needs of the individual, e.g. social welfare, housing, family mediation etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for boys

Boy-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for girls

Girl-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Likely to be beneficial

Interventions which are likely to be beneifical are interventions that were shown to have limited measures of effect, that are likely to be effective but for which evidence is limited.

Level of provision (based on expert opinion) in reporting year

Level of provision information is based on information provided to the EMCDDA through structured questionnaires from the Reitox national focal point in the country in question. These questionnaires are filled in by an expert, or panel of experts, in each country, submitted to the EMCDDA over the Internet, and the responses form the basis of the 'level of provision' data provided in the prevention profiles. The 'About "prevention profiles"' page provides further information, including access to the structured questionnaires.

Level of provision ratings

For readability purposes, the level of provision (based on expert opinion) ratings may be used in a shortened form in a country's prevention profile. The shortened form and the corresponding full term (as it appeared in the questionnaire are given here). 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Manualised parenting programmes

Programmes that are implemented in a modular structured format with defined contents and respective lessons.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Mobile teams for young people

Prevention teams (but not mobile teams for IDUs, nor outreach teams for high risk groups). They are popular in the Nordic countries.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

MUSTAP programmes

MUSTAP programmes are defined as structured, standardised and multi-session interventions with detailed material and manuals and concrete contents for each lesson.

MUSTAP: Coverage (pupils per year)

The total number of students who participated in the MUSTAP programmes in the reporting year.

MUSTAP: delivery mode

The delivery mode can be:

  • Interactive: More than 50 % of the sessions consist of role play, discussions, group work, etc. Increases effectiveness.
  • Didactic/frontal: Delivery of interventions is through frontal teaching. Reduces effectiveness.
MUSTAP: duration (months)

The mean duration of the programmes in months.

MUSTAP: main component

There are five possible components for MUSTAP programmes:

  • Personal skills: Increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives).
  • Social skills: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure.
  • Normative beliefs: Correct the very widespread belief of young people that drug consumption among their peers is normal, accepted and frequent. An effective component.
  • Affective education: Aim to increase self-esteem by developing individual feelings of self-worth and value. Students are taught to accept and play down failings and difficulties. Self-labelling of failure is discouraged. No proof of effectiveness.
  • Information provision : Provide information about drugs, their effects and dangers. No proof of effectiveness when delivered alone.
Number of MUSTAP programmes

Total number of MUSTAP programmes implemented in the reporting year.

Number of published studies

The number of published studies is defined as the total number of studies evaluating interventions relating to this type of prevention within the country, published in scientific journals, (mostly) as reported through the Reitox network in the previous 2 years.

Offer of alternatives to drugs

The involvement of 'participants' in sport, outdoor pursuits, creative writing, photography, art, etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Other external lecturers

E.g. ex-users, experts, physicians providing information about drugs and their risks. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non programme-based approach:

This approach is in contrast to a programme-based approach in that there is no specific programme or module in the syllabus dealing with prevention. Instead, teachers freely deliver, prevention-related content on an ad hoc or as-needed basis, so that prevention material is spread over different school activities and disciplines. It is often referred to as an 'holistic' or 'ecological' approach. Its scope is much broader than providing just information on drugs as it might also include norms, social competences etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches

Peer leaders (often popular pupils) are trained to deliver prevention related content or messages to other pupils. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.)

Only the provision of information on drugs (risks associated with drug use, facts, etc.) is included within school curricula or various school subjects. There is no component aimed at developing personal and social skills for example, (e.g through role playing exercises, or by open discussion in the classroom). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Personal and social skills

Personal and/or social skills training (outside standardised programmes) as a specific intervention method (tools, manuals, trainings). Personal skills include: increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives). Social skills include: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure. Beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Pupils with social, academic problems

Young people deemed at risk of abandoning school because of low achievement, lack of support from home or other social problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

School policies

Norms and agreements regarding illicit drug consumption in a given school, e.g. how to deal with pupils using, or dealing, illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Selective prevention

Selective prevention specifically addresses the vulnerability of specific sub-populations whose risk of a disorder is significantly higher than average. Often this higher vulnerability to problem drug use stems from social exclusion, e.g. for young offenders, school drop-outs, or students, who are failing academically. See Selective prevention for more information.

Substance abuse in family

Families, where parents or siblings have substance abuse problems (including alcohol).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Socially disadvantaged parents

Families with low socio-economic level including unemployment.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco and alcohol policies

The Tobacco Control Scale and the Alcohol Control Score indicate to which extent the availability, normality and 'acceptability' of tobacco and alcohol are addressed in countries' policies.

Testing pupils for drugs

Pupils can be tested for drugs in school premises. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco Control Scale (TCS)

The Tobacco Control Scale is a scale designed to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Maximum 100 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • price of cigarettes and other tobacco products (max. 30);
  • smoke free work and other public places (max. 22);
  • spending on public information campaigns (max. 15);
  • comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion (max. 13);
  • large direct health warning labels (max. 10) and;
  • treatment to help dependent smokers stop (max. 10).

For more information see Joossens, L. and Raw M., (2014), 'The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe' (external link)

Total smoking ban in schools

Smoking is forbidden in the entire school premises, both for pupils and teachers.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tradeoff between benefits and harms

Tradeoff between benefits and harms refers to interventions that obtained measures of effects but that have limitations and/or adverse effects and which therefore need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis before implementing them.

Training for community groups

Training in prevention and empowerment for existing groups within communities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family

Organization of specific training activities with family. It includes coaching sessions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Universal prevention

Universal prevention strategies address the entire population (national, local community, school, neighbourhood) with messages and programmes aimed at preventing or delaying the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. See Universal prevention for more information.

Unlikely to be beneficial

Interventions ared defined as 'unlikely to be beneficial' when there are not enough studies or where available studies are of low quality.

Visits of law enforcement agents to schools

In some Member States, police have a role in schools, which can be anything from carrying out prevention interventions to strengthening the law and rules. Often they provide information about drugs. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in care institutions

Young people who are in state institutions like e.g. shelter houses, orphanages, etc., but not prisons or other incarceration facilities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young offenders

Young people who have been in contact with the criminal justice system, mainly because of possession of illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Youth centres or youth counselling centres

A youth centre is a dedicated premises within a community, offering a drop-in facility for youth. Youth centres may include sports and other recreational facilities as well as advice and counselling services.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods

Young people in neighbourhoods with higher use and availability of substances, delinquency and a poor housing, socio-economic and demographic situation.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.


About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

Contact us

EMCDDA
Praça Europa 1, Cais do Sodré
1249-289 Lisbon
Portugal
Tel. (351) 211 21 02 00
Fax (351) 218 13 17 11

More contact options >>

Page last updated: Friday, 08 April 2016