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Prevention profiles

What are countries in Europe doing to prevent illicit drug use? These drug 'Prevention profiles' try to answer this question by providing information based on expert appraisal of the level of provision of different prevention interventions in Europe.

The latest update (April 2016) contains additional entries for family based approaches in universal prevention (family to family peer approaches, family or parents meetings and evenings, trainings for family, manualised parenting programmes) and in selective prevention (targeting substance abuse in family, socially disadvantaged parents, family conflict and neglect, criminal justice problems in family, families with mental health problems, ethnic families in marginalisation). These newly added items have been created in a pilot project, which involved a panel of experts from different societal sectors in each country. Therefore the information is not available for all EU countries. We have also added the detailed sub-categories of the Alcohol Control Score (only in the Country-by-country tab).

 

 
 

Prevention profile: Greece

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Environmental strategies [?]

Tobacco and alcohol policies
OptionScore
Gini inequality index:34.3 (EU-27 average: 30.6)
Tobacco Control Scale:35 (EU average: 46.2)
Alcohol Control Score:61.5 (EU average: 71.2)
Breakdown of Alcohol Control Score
Control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages:5.5
Age limits and personal control:18
Control of drunk driving:12
Control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages:0
Public policy:6
Alcohol taxation and price:20
Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionScore
School setting
School policies:Rare provision
Total smoking ban in schools:Full provision
Expert's comments:Under the Greek Law, smoking is completely prohibited in all enclosed public and private workplaces with no possibility to create smoking areas, while there is special attention given to smoking bans in schools. However, according to experts��� opinion, there are several difficulties in the implementation of the Law, with regard to smoking in the school yard.
Community setting
Development of community plans:Full provision
Expert's comments:In the framework of the national prevention policy and planning, Prevention Centres for Addiction and Psychosocial Health Promotion have been established throughtout Greece. Prevention Centres operate in the framework of the collaboration of OKANA with local authorities and local agencies. The role of local authorities is very crucial in facilitating the development of plans and strategies which would meet the local needs. The role of OKANA, as the governmental body which contributes in the process of defining, supporting, coordinating and evaluating drug policy in the country, is to ensure the coordination of Prevention Centres nationwide. Prevention Centres are co-funded by the Minstry of Health and the Minsitry of Interior, while the responsibility for the systematic supervision and evaluation of the activities implemented by the Prevention Centres lies with OKANA. For more information regarding Prevention Centres, www.okana.gr. In this framework, the 3-year work plans that Prevention Centres submit to OKANA could be considered as community drug plans taking into account local needs. The 3-year work plan includes situation analysis and need assessment, while it is approved by the Management Board of the Centre, which consists of representatives from local authorities, agencies and bodies, and then by OKANA Management Board.
Interagency work at community level:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:One of the main priorities of the National Plan Against Addictions (2011-2012) is the coordonation at national level through mainly ���the establishement of interministerial collaboration��� as well as in local level, emphasising the coordination of different institutions and agencies in the framework of holistic approach in the drugs field. Local networks of institutions involved in the drugs field and of psychosocial and mental health institutions, have been established in different areas. For example, in Thessaloniki, there is an active network under the auspices of the Municipality, coordinating the work of different agencies, such as the local Prevention Centres, OKANA, KETHEA, ARGO ��� Thessaloniki Psychiatric Hospital, METHEXIS ��� Thessaloniki Psychiatric Hospital, ARSIS NGO, PRAXIS NGO, Self-help Promotion Programme ��� Aristotle University of Thessaloniki / OKANA. Another similar example in institutional networking has been the initiative of Prevention Centre of Chalkidiki PNOI (www.pnoh-chal.gr) which has established a local network of agencies in the field of drugs, social support and mental health. In addition to these established formal networks, Prevention Centres have a close collaboration with heallth and social survices of their region , in view of coordinating action. Furthermore, Prevention Centres attach great importance to the establishment of a framework of cooperation among them. They pursue regular communication with one another in order to exchange experiences, address common difficulties and needs, and develop joint actions. Against this backdrop, in addition to the Panhellenic Network of Prevention Agencies, which has been established in 1993 within the framework of networking among institutions active in the field of addiction prevention (http://www.kpachaia.gr/panellhnio-diktyo-forewn-prolhpshs), regional and local networks have been established among Prevention Centres in view of strengthening cooperation ties.
Community support, involvement and empowerment systems:Limited provision
Expert's comments:The main example of an informal system of community members is the voluntary organisations organised at local level with action on drug prevention. PROTASI Movement for another lifestyle (www.protasi.org.gr) is the main voluntary organisation in the field of prevention. In addiction, Prevention Centres approach volunteers who are members of local associations or who participated in prevention interventions in the past (i.e. in the school community, in parents��� evenings etc.), and organise training seminars for volunteers and provide support to those who get further involved in prevention activities in the community. KETHEA Prevention Sector orginises training seminars and offers a variety of sevices to parents, teachers and headteachers, as well as volunteers.
Training for community groups:Limited provision
Youth centres or youth counselling centres:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:The National Action Plan Against Addictions (2011-2012) recommends the implementation of prevention interventions for young people, as well as the establishment, development and improvement of prevention interventions using niche methodologies (i.e. media and technology). Regarding the availablitity of interventions, in order to reach the youth and involve them in prevention interventions, Prevention Centres do not restrict their interventions to the school setting only. In spite of the reported difficulties in ensuring youth participation (e.g. finding time to attend, high drop out rates, etc.), prevention agencies target preadolescents and adolescents by means of interventions implemented outside the school setting. Prevention interventions involve: brief information and awareness interventions, personal and social skills training seminars, creative activities, counselling. PROTASI Movement (www.protasi.org.gr) has been running in the city of Patra (Peloponnese) a Creative Entertainment Centre for children and adolescents since 1993. The mission of the Creative Entertainment Centre is to ���give children and adolescents the opportunity, by means of alternative proposals, to use their leisure time meaningfully, in the benefit of recreation, personal development and creative expression���. In 2010 KETHEA established the Community Intervention Centre in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens. In the Youth Club a variety of creative activities, training groups, summer camps and other services for youth are offered.
Mobile teams for young people:No provision
Offer of alternatives to drugs:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Several creative activities are offered in an effort to attract young children. In order to reach the youth and involve them in prevention interventions, Prevention Centres do not restrict their interventions to the school setting only. In spite of the reported difficulties in ensuring youth participation (e.g. finding time to attend, high drop out rates, etc.), prevention agencies target preadolescents and adolescents by means of interventions implemented outside the school setting. Prevention interventions involve: brief information and awareness interventions, personal and social skills training seminars, creative activities, counselling. PROTASI Movement (www.protasi.org.gr) has been running in the city of Patra (Peloponese) a Creative Entertainment Centre for children and adolescents since 1993. The mission of the Creative Entertainment Centre is to ���give children and adolescents the opportunity, by means of alternative proposals, to use their leisure time meaningfully, in the benefit of recreation, personal development and creative expression���. In 2010 KETHEA established the Community Intervention Centre in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens. In the Youth Club a variety of creative activities, training groups, summer camps and other services for youth are offered.
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0)

Universal prevention [?]

MUSTAP programmes in 2015
OptionScore
Number of MUSTAP programmes:0
Main component:
Delivery mode:
Duration (months):
Coverage (pupils per year):
SCHOOLS: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Beneficial
Personal and social skills:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Apart from those on drug prevention, personal and/or social skills training is included in other Health Education Programmes which cover a broad range of topics (e.g. diet/nutrition, interpersonal relations, dealing with stress, traffic education, volunteer movement, etc.). Moreover, interventions (organised on their own initiatives not in the context of Health Education Programmes) organised by Prevention Centres / agencies and delivered either by prevention professionals or by trained teachers with the support of prevention professionals, mainly involve personal and/or social skills training, not necessarily using standardised programmes.
Likely to be beneficial
Interventions specifically for girls:No provision
Interventions specifically for boys:No provision
Tradeoff between benefits and harm
Events for parents:Full provision
Expert's comments:Prevention Centres / agencies in cooperation with schools and parents'associations, implement parents evenings and seminars for parents at school promises.
Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches:Rare provision
Unlikely to be beneficial
Creative extracurricular activities:Limited provision
Testing pupils for drugs:No provision
Information days about drugs:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Usually organised in the context of Health Education Programmes, for example at the end of their implementation for the diffusion of the results, etc.
Visits of law enforcement agents to schools:Rare provision
Other external lecturers:Rare provision
Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.):Full provision
Expert's comments:Information on drugs is provided into school subjects of the school curriculum. In addition, information activities on drugs are organised in schools by Prevention Centres / agencies. These activities mainly involve the provision of information on drugs and on drug use consequenses as well as on normative education.
Non programme-based approach:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Prevention Centres / agencies implement training sessions for teachers to incorporate the principles of prevention into school life. These seminars include training in methods of experiential learning, active listening, etc.
FAMILY: Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionExistence/availability
Family to family peer approaches:Rare provision
Expert's comments:Although you can find parents working on prevention this is a rare approach; they mostly undertake information activities to raise awareness among peers and other target groups (teachers, students, wider community). Usually provided by public administration/agency (Prevention Centes).
Family or parents meetings and evenings:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Widely delivered by the vast majority of Prevention Centers. Most of these meetings are based on an educational manual called Communication in the Family. Ususally delivered by public administration/agency (Prevention Centres under the supervision of OKANA).
Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family:Full provision
Expert's comments:Parents training might include up to 15 sessions usually organized in smaller cycles (4-5 meetings) focussing on one topic, that parents can attend in a period of 2-3 years, and gives them the opportunity to participate in follow up programmes. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Prevention Centes).
Manualised parenting programmes:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Prevention Centres mostly base their interventions on the Communication in the Family programme, developed by the University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI). But other materials from the Tacade and the Unplugged programme are also used as well as other tools for parents designed by the Prevention Centers teams. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Prevention Centes).
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0.8)

Selective prevention [?]

Level of provision (based on expert ratings) as reported in 2015
OptionLevel of intervention
Early school leavers:Rare provision
Pupils with social, academic problems:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Prevention Centres approach vulnerable groups mainly in the school setting targeting mostly adolescents who experiment with drugs, students who manifest delinquent behaviour as well as students with various psychosocial problems. These activities involve interventions for students, while seminars for teachers in view of raising their awareness and supporting them in case management are hold. In addition, Prevention Centres in cooperation with local schools provide counselling upon request to students with psychosocial problems. KETHEA Prevention Sector approach young people with problems of low academic performance, with mental health problems and with low parental supervision, etc. with the objective to involve them in prevention interventions. In specific, in 2010 KETHEA established the Community Intervention Centre in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens and are faced with problems as a result of social exclusion, delinquency and drug use. This Centre cooperate with local schools targeting students with psychosocial problems.
Immigrants:Limited provision
Expert's comments:Prevention Centres of the Municipality of Athens ATHINA YGEIA implement interventions in cooperation with schools for immigrants' students. KETHEA Prevention Sector implement a prevention intervention for immigrants��� children aged 11-15 in order to empower children during this crucial transition from grammar school to high school and prevent school dropouts. In addition, in KETHEA���s Community Intervention Centre established in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens and are faced with problems as a result of social exclusion, delinquency and drug use, most of the young people who participate in the activities are immigrants.
Ethnic groups:Rare provision
Homeless young people:No provision
Young offenders:Limited provision
Expert's comments:In view of delinquency prevention, in 1995 Juvenile Protection Associations (JPAs) were set up, under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice, in charge of preventing juvenile delinquency. These are legal entities under the public law reporting to the Ministry of Justice. They operate in the places where courts of first instance have their seat and their mission is to prevent delinquency among minors who exhibit antisocial behaviour or risk becoming perpetrators or victims of criminal offences because of inappropriate or non-existent family environment or other adverse social conditions or reasons. Furthermore, the Ministry of Justice established back in 1976 the Supervisory Juvenile Services at the Juvenile Courts, operating under the auspices of the juvenile judge in the seat of each court of first instance that has a Juvenile Court. They represent the primary non-institutional service for young offenders or minors at risk of becoming perpetrators or victims of criminal offences. They are staffed by juvenile supervisors, who work with minors upon whom the reformatory measure of supervision has been imposed (article 122 of the Penal Code), providing substantial assistance to juvenile judges in trying such cases. They also work with minors at risk of adopting delinquent behaviours because of inappropriate or non-existent family environment or other social circumstances, and provide multifaceted support to themselves and their families (www.ministryofjustice.gr). Measures of prevention and early intervention for young offenders are offered also by bodies from the field of addictions. Since 1998, STROFI Open Therapy Programme for Adolescents has been operating a Counselling Centre for Adolescent Offenders at the Athens Juvenile Court. In addition, there are some informative meetings with prison inmates and representatives of the prison staff. Drug education for young offenders: Training Icarus (TACADE, 2000), published by KETHEA in cooperation with TACADE, UK, is an educational material for professionals providing counselling and support to young people with delinquent behaviour associated with drug dependence. Prevention Centres in cooperation with schools approach students who manifest delinquent behaviour. These interventions involve activities for students, while seminars for teachers in view of raising their awareness and supporting them in case management are hold. In addition, Prevention Centres in cooperation with local schools provide counselling upon request to students with delinquent behaviour. ICARUS Prevention Unit (����TH����), established in 2004, designs and implements selective and indicated prevention interventions, targeting individuals, groups and populations running a higher risk of displaying delinquent behaviours and resorting to the use of drugs. In this framework, ICAROS cooperates with schools, counselling centres of the Ministry of Education and parent associations, as well as with juvenile supervisors and other court officers who approach young offenders.
Young people in care institutions:Rare provision
Expert's comments:IRIDA Prevention Centre of the City of Nea Ionia cooperates with the Boarding Home for Minors, hosting 8- to 18-year-old boys with family problems, for a prevention intervention with skills training and creative entertainment activities.
Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods:Rare provision
Substance abuse in family:Rare provision
Socially disadvantaged parents:Limited provision
Family conflict and neglect:Extensive provision
Expert's comments:Prevention Centres / agencies approach parents in the school setting mainly through the open sessions / discussions that they organise in cooperation with local schools. Through these activities parents come in contact with prevention professionals and their interventions. In addition, Prevention Centres / agencies organise parents��� parents' groups / schools helping parents to resolve day-to-day conflicts and promoting positive parenting strategies. Parents can further approach Prevention Centres / agencies for individual counselling on conflict management strategies and parenting practices. In addition, Strengthening Families Program (SFP), the North American prevention programme for parents, has been translated and adapted by Choremio Research Laboratory of the St. Sophia's Children's Hospital in Athens. In the context of its adaptation in the Greek context it has been piloted and evaluated.
Criminal justice problems in family:Rare provision
Families with mental health problems:Rare provision
Ethnic families in marginalisation:Rare provision
Published studies
OptionScore
Number of published studies:0 (EU average: 0.6)

List of published studies

Environmental strategies

  • Currently no published studies to display

Universal prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

Selective prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

Indicated prevention

  • Currently no published studies to display

Glossary of terms used

Definitions and further explanations for many of the terms used in the 'prevention profiles' are given below.

Alcohol Control Score (ACS)

The values for the alcohol control score are taken from Lindeman, M., Karlsson, T. & Österberg, E. (2015) 'Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe Reframing Addictions Project', ALICERAP Area 5, Workpackage 14.1. In constructing the scale, the Bridging the Gap(BtG) scale and its weights were used as a starting point. These weights were adjusted and validated by referring to state of the art research on evidence-based practice in the field of alcohol policy to measure the strictness and comprehensiveness of alcohol policies. Maximum 160 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages (max. 40);
  • age limits and personal control (max. 24);
  • control of drunk driving (max. 24);
  • control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages (max. 24);
  • public policy (max. 8) and;
  • alcohol taxation and price (max. 40).
Beneficial

Beneficial interventions are defined as those interventions for which precise measures of the effects in favour of the treatment were found in the systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Come-structures

The target group is expected to contact existing services by their own initiative: the user comes to the service.

Community support, involvement and empowerment systems

The informal and personal support and reference systems (the 'significant others') of community members: the involvement of family members, mentors, teachers, peers and others respected by the target groups.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Creative extracurricular activities

Activities organised by schools, mainly for the purposes of drug prevention, usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus, such as workshops, sports, photography, art, drama, etc. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Criminal justice problems in family

Families where parents or offspring have criminal record problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Development of community plans

Community plans that include a (drug) prevention strategy.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early detection mechanisms in school

Early identification mechanisms for intervention in pupils with risk behaviours related to drug use, an initiative where with universal and indicated prevention overlap. Often, universal programmes that address, for instance, school climate and social interactions include techniques to identify vulnerable pupils to be then catered for in more targeted interventions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early school leavers

Young people who have left school or are not attending regularly (not necessarily because of drug use).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Evaluation activity

Evaluation is defined here as the systematic and scientific collection, processing and analysis of data related to the implementation of an intervention, in order to assess whether the objectives of an intervention have been achieved. The evaluation activity is based on entries in the Exchange on Drug Demand Reduction Action (EDDRA) database, an online archive of evaluated interventions in drug demand reduction implemented in EMCDDA member countries. Entries are submitted to the database by focal points within each country.

Evaluation activity score

The evaluation activity score for a given type of prevention is derived from the share of projects entered by a country into EDDRA since 2000 for that type of prevention. Projects in EDDRA are rated by a quality level, which assesses the quality of the intervention evaluation (see the EDDRA quality levels page for more information). The different quality levels of the entries are weighted in the score (1 lowest) to 3 (highest). Therefore the number of prevention interventions in EDDRA is a proxy for the activity level in systematically designing and evaluating interventions in a country's prevention culture, and does not reflect the overall number of existing prevention projects.

Environmental strategies

Environmental strategies are prevention strategies aimed at altering the immediate cultural, social, physical and economic environments in which people make their choices about drug use. This perspective takes into account that individuals do not become involved with substances solely on the basis of personal characteristics but are rather influenced by perceived norms, values and informal rules in their communities. See Environmental strategies for more information.

Ethnic families in marginalisation

Families whose migration background obstructs social integration into local community.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Ethnic groups

Groups that have lived for more than one generation (or much longer) in a country while preserving their own identity, norms, values and language.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Events for parents

Activities for parents organised by schools and usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family conflict and neglect

Conflictive or dysfunctional families where neglect might occur.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Families with mental health problems

Families where parents or offspring have mental health, e.g. depression.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family or parents meetings and evenings

Organization of events for parents or th entire family.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family to family peer approaches

Family to family peer approaches are techniques aiming to involve families in prevention activities or networks through other families, with a snowbolling effect.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Gini inequality index

The Gini inequality index measures income inequality between the richest decile of a population and the poorest. It ranges from 0 (everyone has the same income) to 100 (one person has all the income) and is a good proxy for social inequality. Most countries range between 25 and 60.

The impact of social inequality on health gained attention with the controversy over Pickett and Wilkinson’s (2010) assertion that problems like substance use, teenage pregnancies, violence etc. are higher in more unequal societies because of the increased competition for status and positional goods affects people’s physiological and physical well-being. A WHO (CSDH, 2008) report and the Marmot Review (2010) for the UK confirmed that inequalities in health including substance use problems are related to social inequality.

We have included the Gini inequality index for three reasons:

  1. Social inequality seems to be a crucial environmental condition that affects people's health choices (including substance use) and is — together with alcohol and tobacco policies — a framework condition that can act against or in support of prevention interventions. Prevention efforts and their overall effects need to be viewed in the context of these determinants.
  2. It puts into plausible context why some more equal societies, e.g. the Scandinavian countries and particularly Finland, focus less on single programmes to curb the emergence of problems but rather rely on social inclusion policies at all relevant levels: family, school, community and society.
  3. More unequal countries might need more sophisticated prevention programmes. There is evidence that such prevention programmes can reduce the effects of social inequality on behavioural outcomes. For instance: some universal programmes  have selectively (differentially) better effects on the more vulnerable, within the children exposed (Ialongo et al. 1999; Kellam et al. 2008); selective family-based programmes are more effective the more vulnerable the families are (Kumpfer et al. 2008; Webster-Stratton 2001); and also indicated programme  can bring the most behaviourally difficult children to better social functioning (see the EMCDDA thematic paper 'Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents', 2009).
Go-structures

The target group is proactively approached and involved, for example at home or on the street: the service goes to the user.

Homeless young people

Young people who have fled their families or care institutions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Immigrants

Groups that have recently arrived in a country and may be striving to adapt culturally and economically.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Indicated prevention

Indicated prevention aims to identify individuals who are exhibiting behaviours that are highly correlated with an individual risk of developing substance abuse later in their lives (such as psychiatric disorder, school failure, dissocial behaviour, etc.) or, displaying early signs of problematic substance use, and to target them with special interventions. See Indicated prevention for more information.

Information days about drugs

Organisation of drug information days and activities. Also project weeks, competitions, exhibitions, etc., organised on the theme of drug information. Full days (not just a lesson). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interangency work at community level

Interagency work refers to the formal and institutional networks and support systems within a community. It offers community members a broad and coordinated network system including services for needs of the individual, e.g. social welfare, housing, family mediation etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for boys

Boy-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for girls

Girl-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Likely to be beneficial

Interventions which are likely to be beneifical are interventions that were shown to have limited measures of effect, that are likely to be effective but for which evidence is limited.

Level of provision (based on expert opinion) in reporting year

Level of provision information is based on information provided to the EMCDDA through structured questionnaires from the Reitox national focal point in the country in question. These questionnaires are filled in by an expert, or panel of experts, in each country, submitted to the EMCDDA over the Internet, and the responses form the basis of the 'level of provision' data provided in the prevention profiles. The 'About "prevention profiles"' page provides further information, including access to the structured questionnaires.

Level of provision ratings

For readability purposes, the level of provision (based on expert opinion) ratings may be used in a shortened form in a country's prevention profile. The shortened form and the corresponding full term (as it appeared in the questionnaire are given here). 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Manualised parenting programmes

Programmes that are implemented in a modular structured format with defined contents and respective lessons.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Mobile teams for young people

Prevention teams (but not mobile teams for IDUs, nor outreach teams for high risk groups). They are popular in the Nordic countries.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

MUSTAP programmes

MUSTAP programmes are defined as structured, standardised and multi-session interventions with detailed material and manuals and concrete contents for each lesson.

MUSTAP: Coverage (pupils per year)

The total number of students who participated in the MUSTAP programmes in the reporting year.

MUSTAP: delivery mode

The delivery mode can be:

  • Interactive: More than 50 % of the sessions consist of role play, discussions, group work, etc. Increases effectiveness.
  • Didactic/frontal: Delivery of interventions is through frontal teaching. Reduces effectiveness.
MUSTAP: duration (months)

The mean duration of the programmes in months.

MUSTAP: main component

There are five possible components for MUSTAP programmes:

  • Personal skills: Increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives).
  • Social skills: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure.
  • Normative beliefs: Correct the very widespread belief of young people that drug consumption among their peers is normal, accepted and frequent. An effective component.
  • Affective education: Aim to increase self-esteem by developing individual feelings of self-worth and value. Students are taught to accept and play down failings and difficulties. Self-labelling of failure is discouraged. No proof of effectiveness.
  • Information provision : Provide information about drugs, their effects and dangers. No proof of effectiveness when delivered alone.
Number of MUSTAP programmes

Total number of MUSTAP programmes implemented in the reporting year.

Number of published studies

The number of published studies is defined as the total number of studies evaluating interventions relating to this type of prevention within the country, published in scientific journals, (mostly) as reported through the Reitox network in the previous 2 years.

Offer of alternatives to drugs

The involvement of 'participants' in sport, outdoor pursuits, creative writing, photography, art, etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Other external lecturers

E.g. ex-users, experts, physicians providing information about drugs and their risks. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non programme-based approach:

This approach is in contrast to a programme-based approach in that there is no specific programme or module in the syllabus dealing with prevention. Instead, teachers freely deliver, prevention-related content on an ad hoc or as-needed basis, so that prevention material is spread over different school activities and disciplines. It is often referred to as an 'holistic' or 'ecological' approach. Its scope is much broader than providing just information on drugs as it might also include norms, social competences etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches

Peer leaders (often popular pupils) are trained to deliver prevention related content or messages to other pupils. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.)

Only the provision of information on drugs (risks associated with drug use, facts, etc.) is included within school curricula or various school subjects. There is no component aimed at developing personal and social skills for example, (e.g through role playing exercises, or by open discussion in the classroom). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Personal and social skills

Personal and/or social skills training (outside standardised programmes) as a specific intervention method (tools, manuals, trainings). Personal skills include: increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives). Social skills include: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure. Beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Pupils with social, academic problems

Young people deemed at risk of abandoning school because of low achievement, lack of support from home or other social problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

School policies

Norms and agreements regarding illicit drug consumption in a given school, e.g. how to deal with pupils using, or dealing, illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Selective prevention

Selective prevention specifically addresses the vulnerability of specific sub-populations whose risk of a disorder is significantly higher than average. Often this higher vulnerability to problem drug use stems from social exclusion, e.g. for young offenders, school drop-outs, or students, who are failing academically. See Selective prevention for more information.

Substance abuse in family

Families, where parents or siblings have substance abuse problems (including alcohol).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Socially disadvantaged parents

Families with low socio-economic level including unemployment.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco and alcohol policies

The Tobacco Control Scale and the Alcohol Control Score indicate to which extent the availability, normality and 'acceptability' of tobacco and alcohol are addressed in countries' policies.

Testing pupils for drugs

Pupils can be tested for drugs in school premises. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco Control Scale (TCS)

The Tobacco Control Scale is a scale designed to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Maximum 100 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • price of cigarettes and other tobacco products (max. 30);
  • smoke free work and other public places (max. 22);
  • spending on public information campaigns (max. 15);
  • comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion (max. 13);
  • large direct health warning labels (max. 10) and;
  • treatment to help dependent smokers stop (max. 10).

For more information see Joossens, L. and Raw M., (2014), 'The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe' (external link)

Total smoking ban in schools

Smoking is forbidden in the entire school premises, both for pupils and teachers.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tradeoff between benefits and harms

Tradeoff between benefits and harms refers to interventions that obtained measures of effects but that have limitations and/or adverse effects and which therefore need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis before implementing them.

Training for community groups

Training in prevention and empowerment for existing groups within communities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family

Organization of specific training activities with family. It includes coaching sessions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Universal prevention

Universal prevention strategies address the entire population (national, local community, school, neighbourhood) with messages and programmes aimed at preventing or delaying the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. See Universal prevention for more information.

Unlikely to be beneficial

Interventions ared defined as 'unlikely to be beneficial' when there are not enough studies or where available studies are of low quality.

Visits of law enforcement agents to schools

In some Member States, police have a role in schools, which can be anything from carrying out prevention interventions to strengthening the law and rules. Often they provide information about drugs. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in care institutions

Young people who are in state institutions like e.g. shelter houses, orphanages, etc., but not prisons or other incarceration facilities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young offenders

Young people who have been in contact with the criminal justice system, mainly because of possession of illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Youth centres or youth counselling centres

A youth centre is a dedicated premises within a community, offering a drop-in facility for youth. Youth centres may include sports and other recreational facilities as well as advice and counselling services.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods

Young people in neighbourhoods with higher use and availability of substances, delinquency and a poor housing, socio-economic and demographic situation.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.


About the EMCDDA

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

Contact us

EMCDDA
Praça Europa 1, Cais do Sodré
1249-289 Lisbon
Portugal
Tel. (351) 211 21 02 00
Fax (351) 218 13 17 11

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Page last updated: Friday, 08 April 2016