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Prevention profiles

What are countries in Europe doing to prevent illicit drug use? These drug 'Prevention profiles' try to answer this question by providing information based on expert appraisal of the level of provision of different prevention interventions in Europe.

The latest update (April 2016) contains additional entries for family based approaches in universal prevention (family to family peer approaches, family or parents meetings and evenings, trainings for family, manualised parenting programmes) and in selective prevention (targeting substance abuse in family, socially disadvantaged parents, family conflict and neglect, criminal justice problems in family, families with mental health problems, ethnic families in marginalisation). These newly added items have been created in a pilot project, which involved a panel of experts from different societal sectors in each country. Therefore the information is not available for all EU countries. We have also added the detailed sub-categories of the Alcohol Control Score (only in the Country-by-country tab).

 

 
 

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map of Europe
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Glossary of terms used

Definitions and further explanations for many of the terms used in the 'prevention profiles' are given below.

Alcohol Control Score (ACS)

The values for the alcohol control score are taken from Lindeman, M., Karlsson, T. & Österberg, E. (2015) 'Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe Reframing Addictions Project', ALICERAP Area 5, Workpackage 14.1. In constructing the scale, the Bridging the Gap(BtG) scale and its weights were used as a starting point. These weights were adjusted and validated by referring to state of the art research on evidence-based practice in the field of alcohol policy to measure the strictness and comprehensiveness of alcohol policies. Maximum 160 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • control of production, retail sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages (max. 40);
  • age limits and personal control (max. 24);
  • control of drunk driving (max. 24);
  • control of advertising, marketing and sponsorship of alcoholic beverages (max. 24);
  • public policy (max. 8) and;
  • alcohol taxation and price (max. 40).
Beneficial

Beneficial interventions are defined as those interventions for which precise measures of the effects in favour of the treatment were found in the systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Come-structures

The target group is expected to contact existing services by their own initiative: the user comes to the service.

Community support, involvement and empowerment systems

The informal and personal support and reference systems (the 'significant others') of community members: the involvement of family members, mentors, teachers, peers and others respected by the target groups.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Creative extracurricular activities

Activities organised by schools, mainly for the purposes of drug prevention, usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus, such as workshops, sports, photography, art, drama, etc. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Criminal justice problems in family

Families where parents or offspring have criminal record problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Development of community plans

Community plans that include a (drug) prevention strategy.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early detection mechanisms in school

Early identification mechanisms for intervention in pupils with risk behaviours related to drug use, an initiative where with universal and indicated prevention overlap. Often, universal programmes that address, for instance, school climate and social interactions include techniques to identify vulnerable pupils to be then catered for in more targeted interventions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Early school leavers

Young people who have left school or are not attending regularly (not necessarily because of drug use).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Evaluation activity

Evaluation is defined here as the systematic and scientific collection, processing and analysis of data related to the implementation of an intervention, in order to assess whether the objectives of an intervention have been achieved. The evaluation activity is based on entries in the Exchange on Drug Demand Reduction Action (EDDRA) database, an online archive of evaluated interventions in drug demand reduction implemented in EMCDDA member countries. Entries are submitted to the database by focal points within each country.

Evaluation activity score

The evaluation activity score for a given type of prevention is derived from the share of projects entered by a country into EDDRA since 2000 for that type of prevention. Projects in EDDRA are rated by a quality level, which assesses the quality of the intervention evaluation (see the EDDRA quality levels page for more information). The different quality levels of the entries are weighted in the score (1 lowest) to 3 (highest). Therefore the number of prevention interventions in EDDRA is a proxy for the activity level in systematically designing and evaluating interventions in a country's prevention culture, and does not reflect the overall number of existing prevention projects.

Environmental strategies

Environmental strategies are prevention strategies aimed at altering the immediate cultural, social, physical and economic environments in which people make their choices about drug use. This perspective takes into account that individuals do not become involved with substances solely on the basis of personal characteristics but are rather influenced by perceived norms, values and informal rules in their communities. See Environmental strategies for more information.

Ethnic families in marginalisation

Families whose migration background obstructs social integration into local community.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Ethnic groups

Groups that have lived for more than one generation (or much longer) in a country while preserving their own identity, norms, values and language.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Events for parents

Activities for parents organised by schools and usually at the school premises, but outside the school syllabus. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family conflict and neglect

Conflictive or dysfunctional families where neglect might occur.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Families with mental health problems

Families where parents or offspring have mental health, e.g. depression.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family or parents meetings and evenings

Organization of events for parents or th entire family.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Family to family peer approaches

Family to family peer approaches are techniques aiming to involve families in prevention activities or networks through other families, with a snowbolling effect.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Gini inequality index

The Gini inequality index measures income inequality between the richest decile of a population and the poorest. It ranges from 0 (everyone has the same income) to 100 (one person has all the income) and is a good proxy for social inequality. Most countries range between 25 and 60.

The impact of social inequality on health gained attention with the controversy over Pickett and Wilkinson’s (2010) assertion that problems like substance use, teenage pregnancies, violence etc. are higher in more unequal societies because of the increased competition for status and positional goods affects people’s physiological and physical well-being. A WHO (CSDH, 2008) report and the Marmot Review (2010) for the UK confirmed that inequalities in health including substance use problems are related to social inequality.

We have included the Gini inequality index for three reasons:

  1. Social inequality seems to be a crucial environmental condition that affects people's health choices (including substance use) and is — together with alcohol and tobacco policies — a framework condition that can act against or in support of prevention interventions. Prevention efforts and their overall effects need to be viewed in the context of these determinants.
  2. It puts into plausible context why some more equal societies, e.g. the Scandinavian countries and particularly Finland, focus less on single programmes to curb the emergence of problems but rather rely on social inclusion policies at all relevant levels: family, school, community and society.
  3. More unequal countries might need more sophisticated prevention programmes. There is evidence that such prevention programmes can reduce the effects of social inequality on behavioural outcomes. For instance: some universal programmes  have selectively (differentially) better effects on the more vulnerable, within the children exposed (Ialongo et al. 1999; Kellam et al. 2008); selective family-based programmes are more effective the more vulnerable the families are (Kumpfer et al. 2008; Webster-Stratton 2001); and also indicated programme  can bring the most behaviourally difficult children to better social functioning (see the EMCDDA thematic paper 'Preventing later substance use disorders in at-risk children and adolescents', 2009).
Go-structures

The target group is proactively approached and involved, for example at home or on the street: the service goes to the user.

Homeless young people

Young people who have fled their families or care institutions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Immigrants

Groups that have recently arrived in a country and may be striving to adapt culturally and economically.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Indicated prevention

Indicated prevention aims to identify individuals who are exhibiting behaviours that are highly correlated with an individual risk of developing substance abuse later in their lives (such as psychiatric disorder, school failure, dissocial behaviour, etc.) or, displaying early signs of problematic substance use, and to target them with special interventions. See Indicated prevention for more information.

Information days about drugs

Organisation of drug information days and activities. Also project weeks, competitions, exhibitions, etc., organised on the theme of drug information. Full days (not just a lesson). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interangency work at community level

Interagency work refers to the formal and institutional networks and support systems within a community. It offers community members a broad and coordinated network system including services for needs of the individual, e.g. social welfare, housing, family mediation etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for boys

Boy-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Interventions specifically for girls

Girl-specific risk profiles are considered and/or gender-specific cognitive, developmental and emotional aspects are differentially addressed, often in specific interventions. Likely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Likely to be beneficial

Interventions which are likely to be beneifical are interventions that were shown to have limited measures of effect, that are likely to be effective but for which evidence is limited.

Level of provision (based on expert opinion) in reporting year

Level of provision information is based on information provided to the EMCDDA through structured questionnaires from the Reitox national focal point in the country in question. These questionnaires are filled in by an expert, or panel of experts, in each country, submitted to the EMCDDA over the Internet, and the responses form the basis of the 'level of provision' data provided in the prevention profiles. The 'About "prevention profiles"' page provides further information, including access to the structured questionnaires.

Level of provision ratings

For readability purposes, the level of provision (based on expert opinion) ratings may be used in a shortened form in a country's prevention profile. The shortened form and the corresponding full term (as it appeared in the questionnaire are given here). 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Manualised parenting programmes

Programmes that are implemented in a modular structured format with defined contents and respective lessons.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Mobile teams for young people

Prevention teams (but not mobile teams for IDUs, nor outreach teams for high risk groups). They are popular in the Nordic countries.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

MUSTAP programmes

MUSTAP programmes are defined as structured, standardised and multi-session interventions with detailed material and manuals and concrete contents for each lesson.

MUSTAP: Coverage (pupils per year)

The total number of students who participated in the MUSTAP programmes in the reporting year.

MUSTAP: delivery mode

The delivery mode can be:

  • Interactive: More than 50 % of the sessions consist of role play, discussions, group work, etc. Increases effectiveness.
  • Didactic/frontal: Delivery of interventions is through frontal teaching. Reduces effectiveness.
MUSTAP: duration (months)

The mean duration of the programmes in months.

MUSTAP: main component

There are five possible components for MUSTAP programmes:

  • Personal skills: Increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives).
  • Social skills: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure.
  • Normative beliefs: Correct the very widespread belief of young people that drug consumption among their peers is normal, accepted and frequent. An effective component.
  • Affective education: Aim to increase self-esteem by developing individual feelings of self-worth and value. Students are taught to accept and play down failings and difficulties. Self-labelling of failure is discouraged. No proof of effectiveness.
  • Information provision : Provide information about drugs, their effects and dangers. No proof of effectiveness when delivered alone.
Number of MUSTAP programmes

Total number of MUSTAP programmes implemented in the reporting year.

Number of published studies

The number of published studies is defined as the total number of studies evaluating interventions relating to this type of prevention within the country, published in scientific journals, (mostly) as reported through the Reitox network in the previous 2 years.

Offer of alternatives to drugs

The involvement of 'participants' in sport, outdoor pursuits, creative writing, photography, art, etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Other external lecturers

E.g. ex-users, experts, physicians providing information about drugs and their risks. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non programme-based approach:

This approach is in contrast to a programme-based approach in that there is no specific programme or module in the syllabus dealing with prevention. Instead, teachers freely deliver, prevention-related content on an ad hoc or as-needed basis, so that prevention material is spread over different school activities and disciplines. It is often referred to as an 'holistic' or 'ecological' approach. Its scope is much broader than providing just information on drugs as it might also include norms, social competences etc.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Non-programme-based peer to peer approaches

Peer leaders (often popular pupils) are trained to deliver prevention related content or messages to other pupils. Tradeoff between benefits and harm.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Only information on drugs (no social skills etc.)

Only the provision of information on drugs (risks associated with drug use, facts, etc.) is included within school curricula or various school subjects. There is no component aimed at developing personal and social skills for example, (e.g through role playing exercises, or by open discussion in the classroom). Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Personal and social skills

Personal and/or social skills training (outside standardised programmes) as a specific intervention method (tools, manuals, trainings). Personal skills include: increase goal setting, coping (deal with hardship), motivation and decision making (identifying problems, creating solutions and making choices among alternatives). Social skills include: Increase assertiveness, communication skills (listening, flirting, making compliments), empathy and expression of feelings and sometimes to resist peer pressure. Beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Pupils with social, academic problems

Young people deemed at risk of abandoning school because of low achievement, lack of support from home or other social problems.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

School policies

Norms and agreements regarding illicit drug consumption in a given school, e.g. how to deal with pupils using, or dealing, illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Selective prevention

Selective prevention specifically addresses the vulnerability of specific sub-populations whose risk of a disorder is significantly higher than average. Often this higher vulnerability to problem drug use stems from social exclusion, e.g. for young offenders, school drop-outs, or students, who are failing academically. See Selective prevention for more information.

Substance abuse in family

Families, where parents or siblings have substance abuse problems (including alcohol).

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Socially disadvantaged parents

Families with low socio-economic level including unemployment.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco and alcohol policies

The Tobacco Control Scale and the Alcohol Control Score indicate to which extent the availability, normality and 'acceptability' of tobacco and alcohol are addressed in countries' policies.

Testing pupils for drugs

Pupils can be tested for drugs in school premises. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tobacco Control Scale (TCS)

The Tobacco Control Scale is a scale designed to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Maximum 100 points, composed of sub-scores for:

  • price of cigarettes and other tobacco products (max. 30);
  • smoke free work and other public places (max. 22);
  • spending on public information campaigns (max. 15);
  • comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion (max. 13);
  • large direct health warning labels (max. 10) and;
  • treatment to help dependent smokers stop (max. 10).

For more information see Joossens, L. and Raw M., (2014), 'The Tobacco Control Scale 2013 in Europe' (external link)

Total smoking ban in schools

Smoking is forbidden in the entire school premises, both for pupils and teachers.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Tradeoff between benefits and harms

Tradeoff between benefits and harms refers to interventions that obtained measures of effects but that have limitations and/or adverse effects and which therefore need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis before implementing them.

Training for community groups

Training in prevention and empowerment for existing groups within communities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Trainings (intensive and repeated coaching) for family

Organization of specific training activities with family. It includes coaching sessions.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Universal prevention

Universal prevention strategies address the entire population (national, local community, school, neighbourhood) with messages and programmes aimed at preventing or delaying the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. See Universal prevention for more information.

Unlikely to be beneficial

Interventions ared defined as 'unlikely to be beneficial' when there are not enough studies or where available studies are of low quality.

Visits of law enforcement agents to schools

In some Member States, police have a role in schools, which can be anything from carrying out prevention interventions to strengthening the law and rules. Often they provide information about drugs. Unlikely to be beneficial.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in care institutions

Young people who are in state institutions like e.g. shelter houses, orphanages, etc., but not prisons or other incarceration facilities.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young offenders

Young people who have been in contact with the criminal justice system, mainly because of possession of illegal drugs.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Youth centres or youth counselling centres

A youth centre is a dedicated premises within a community, offering a drop-in facility for youth. Youth centres may include sports and other recreational facilities as well as advice and counselling services.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.

Young people in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods

Young people in neighbourhoods with higher use and availability of substances, delinquency and a poor housing, socio-economic and demographic situation.

Level of provision information provided here is based on the opinion of an expert (or panel of experts) in each country. Key for ratings (key and corresponding response in questionnaire): 'None or 'No provision: 'doesn't exist'; Rare provision: 'exists in just a few relevant locations'; Limited provision: 'exists in more than a few relevant locations (but not in a majority of them)'; Extensive provision: 'exists in a majority of relevant location (but not in nearly all of them)'; Full provision: 'exists in nearly all relevant locations'.


Raw data

Belgium

26.6
47
53.5
Full provision
Since 1998, a structural policy framework for drug prevention in secondary schools (Drug policy at school) was developed and has a very wide uptake in the Flemish region. Each school develops its own global and structural framework for the implementation of universal prevention programs and activities, tailored to each individual school setting. Since it's inception and up untill 2012 the program had 951 subscriptions.
Full provision
In theory, full provision: indeed, a legal act, and a draft circular, totally ban tobacco from school. It is nonetheless impossible to verify in every locality if exceptions to the ban exist.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
The tendency, in matter of health promotion in the FWB (the French-Speaking Community/territory of Belgium), was to train the so called "adult-relays" (adults in contact with the youngsters), in order to let them carry the message of prevention towards the kids. A small number (small because of low credits) of organizations in charge of that matter have trained school teachers to bring these prevention messages to the pupils. But recently , the school authorities have decided that drug matters were not a priority anymore, so that the official list of trainings that the teachers can follow no longer focus on drug addictions. Thus, the health promotion organizations that used to train teachers before face growing difficulties to deliver those messages to the school environment.
No provision
Extensive provision
There exist a website "Drugs on the move" (http://www.drugsinbeweging.be/) which provides a step-by-step plan how to introduce a drug policy in youth movements. Prevention workers can support youth movements in the elaboration of the drug policy
No information
Rare provision
High
3
Extensive provision
The "PSE" services ("promotion de la sant�� �� l'��cole"/"Health Promotion at School") might organize such trainings in rare or limited provisions. But we do not have the means to investigate that point at each PSE.
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
Evenings are organised by parents associations. A growing focus, on these occasions, is set on media dependence, and behavioral dependence in general.
No provision
Rare provision
Example:"Diabolo-manque", by the NGO NADJA: a moving exhibition (in a bus), addressing the pupils of high primary school/low secundary school cycles. (http://www.nadja-asbl.be/prevention/activites.php?aff=diabolo)
Rare provision
Rare provision
Information days targetting adult-relays of the school evironment exist. They are proposed by the specialized services in drug-addictions of the FWB. But the provision remains rare, since this matter no longer is a priority for the IFC (Institut de Formation en cours de Carri��re/Institute for the Training in course of Carreer). Moreover, these specialized services work in the framework of Health Promotion, which is more "unspecific". They thus rather take the health as a whole than focussing only on drugs.
Limited provision
These interventions are related to programs: the policemen come several times in the class in the framework of a training on confidence and self-esteem. The interventions of policemen in the school environment draws a lot of questions. Actors of the social and health field fear that some confusion might occur in the mind of the drugusers about the roles of each professional body. Does the police (still in charge of pursuing the law-offenders) work hand-in-hand with the social and health workers in matter of prevention, and with what secrecy between these various interventions? It is, namely, a constant jurisprudence from the court of cassation, that the professional secrecy inside the various professional corporations should be strictly respected, in order to maintain the user's confidence in these corporations/institutions.
Rare provision
No provision
Rare provision
Some entries exist, in the school curriculum, to treat that topic. Namely, the religion lessons, and particularly the topic of "self-destruction".
Medium
Rare provision
Some entries exist, in the school curriculum, to treat that topic. Namely, the religion lessons, and particularly the topic of "self-destruction".
Extensive provision
There is a long tradition of parent evenings, organised by prevention workers from Centers for Mental Health and local prevention workers. One of the most recent programs is Als kleine kinderen groot worden (when small children grow up) developed by VAD and implemented through different organisations to engage parents with adolescent children (12-15 year-olds) in education and drug prevention (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) as well as gaming. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Social and Health services) along with private organizations (NGOs).
No provision
Limited provision
No modular format is available right now nationwide. Limited implementation of the parenting support programme Opvoedingsondersteuning. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs ).
No provision
At the "AMO" - "Aide en Milieu Ouvert" (= Youth Help without constraint), the early schoolbreakers are accomodated voluntarily. But in the streets, outreach workers visit them to implement social work. It is impossible to determine the ratio between both types of intervention. Besides, SOME "PAA" (Points d'Appui Assu��tudes/Support Points in Drug-addictions, active in the school environment - see SQ25), fulfilling their mission of linking schools withe the actors of drug-addiction prevention, direct them towards agencies which target early school leavers. These are: - The specialized youth help, which mentions the target in it's general prevention policy - The ministry of internal affairs published a draft circular ("plp 41") which organizes the links between school and the police on early school leaving, consumptions, violence and criminality (see: http://www.gallilex.cfwb.be/fr/cir_res_01.php?ncda=31572&referant=&bck_ncda=21557&bck_referant= ) - The "communal prevention services", also funded by the ministry of internal affairs, have created the "monitoring cells for 'school hanging'", which struggle against early leaving. The latter made an inquiry on the reasons of school leaving, and one of them was drug consumptions, which leads them to try to minimize that factor. See: http://www.caaj.cfwb.be/fileadmin/sites/caaj/upload/caaj_bruxelles/Documents/livret_print_2_.pdf
Limited provision
Usually, in the FWB, almost all the prevention is "universal" (the policies address everyone, rather than stigmatizing particular groups) and "unspecific" (work is done on all determinants of social and physical health, rather than focusing only on drugs, for example). But it is impossible to screen all social policies to verify if this target is mentionned in one of them.
Rare provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Providers are the Youth Care Institutions. This is a network of low treshold institutions which target youth with problems. There exists a prevention package (Maat in de shit) with different tools to use in this setting.
Extensive provision
Providers are the Youth Care Institutions. This is a network of low treshold institutions which target youth with problems. There is a prevention package (Maat in de shit) with different tools to use in this setting.
Limited provision
The "drug policy" is included in the "health promotion policy" of the FWB. And in that framework, the FWB launched a call for proposals labelled "Reduction of social inequities in health through the municipalities or the Public Welfare Centres". One of the subjects to be developed in the latter is a responsible (moderate) consumption of alcohol by the youngsters.
Limited provision
Support for parents with children who are using drugs and children of parents with alcohol- or drugproblems.
Rare provision
No information
No information
No information
No information
Tuppercare homeparties for ethnic groups
Low
Limited provision
Low

Bulgaria

33.6
46
55
Full provision
Full provision
Extensive provision
We have Municipal Drug - prevention strategies in which is written community - based interventions like: alternative leisure time programmes, universal youth programmes outside school, sports clubs, youth clubs. For example: Varna 2009 ���Prevention of drug use in the school milieu��� Program. Aim of the program: enhancing the capacity of the schools for the implementation of long-term prevention programs to reduce the risk of psychoactive substance (PAS) use and of the social aftermaths ensuing for the young people ��� dropping out of school, criminal acts, leaving home etc.
Rare provision
Rare provision
No provision
Rare provision
In one center in the capital Sofia
Limited provision
In 3-5 cities - regional centers Youth clubs are established to the Municipal Drugs Councils
Extensive provision
In 2009 - 2012 1/4 from all prevention activities at the local level in Municipalities are: theatre productions, photography and art competitions and outdoor sports events.
Low
0
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
No provision
Full provision
On the occasion of 26th June ��� the International Day of Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking ��� different campaigns dedicated to the problem are organized in most parts of the country. The events are mainly covered by local media (television, radio, printed and on-line publications).
Limited provision
n.a.
Extensive provision
Experts, police officers and ex-users and medical staff are made many prevention information activities regarding to prevent drug - use among young children.
Rare provision
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
Rare provision
No information
Rare provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
No provision
Rare provision
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
Low
Rare provision
Low

Czech Republic

24.9
34
70
Full provision
Each school is obliged to have developed the so called Minimal prevention programme. There is a central guideline from Ministry of education and number of other guiding supporting documents.
Full provision
Usually set in the so called school charts.
Full provision
All 14 regions are since 2012 newly obliged to develop Regional prevention plans.
Full provision
In all communities/municipalities, social welfare departments exists with so called "coordinators of social services" in many of them. Within this social support system, different agencies from various sectors cooperate.
Full provision
Each school in the Czech Rep. is obliged to have developed so called Minimal preventon programme and School drug coordinator which is selected from one of teachers.
Extensive provision
School coordinator is obliged to undergo specialised training.
Full provision
There are more than 250 so called Low threshold facilities for children and youth.
Rare provision
Full provision
There is a system of "art basic schools" nearly in all cities. There is a network of "houses for children and youth" with a lot of sport and art "circles". Extracurricular "circles" are also organised by each school.
Low
1
Limited provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Full provision
There is a system of "art basic schools" nearly in all cities. There is a network of "houses for children and youth" with a lot of sport and art "circles". Extracurricular "circles" are also organised by each school.
Limited provision
There were guidelines developed in order to limit testing to a maximum in 2012. The Ministry of Education is prepared to introduce this guidelines on a national level.
No provision
Limited provision
Work of police at school is not well coordinated with other preventive activities, training and education status of police preventive workers is unknown. Each police district is responsible for the delivery. There was an attempt to coordinate prevention activities at the national level of police two years ago, but it failed. There are two providers, community police and national police.
Limited provision
This is a problematic issue since very few are competent to carry out drug prevention interventions.
Extensive provision
Information-based lessons on drugs are part of different school subjecs. School drug coordinators are often lecturers.
Limited provision
Low
No information
Limited provision
Parents meetings are organized within the school system and provided by the education services along with NGOs and sometimes religious organizations. Usualy delivered by public administration/agency along with private organizations (NGOs).
Rare provision
Intensive and repeated training is not common for universal prevention. There might be some private initiatives but they are not implemented nationwide. Usualy delivered by private organizations
Rare provision
No manualised programme is being currently implemented. Some piloting experiences include the implementation of the programme Unplugged.
Extensive provision
Schools are cooperating with district prevention specialists or psychologists in so called pedagogue-psychological counselling centres, which are institutional part of the school/education system.
Extensive provision
Schools are cooperating with district prevention specialists or psychologists in so called pedagogue-psychological counselling centres, which are institutional part of the school/education system.
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Social workers funded by government council for Roma issues work in socially excluded communities. Agency for social reintegration in institutionally is present in some of localities.
No provision
No provision
Extensive provision
There is a special law "for justice in youth". The prosecution and court procedures of adolescents in 15-18 are regulated here. There are educational and protective measures defined in the law like supervision of probation offices, probation programme, educational duties and limitations. There are also penalties defined which can be applied in youths.
Full provision
In the Czech Rep., special children and youth care institutions are within Min. of Education
Extensive provision
Social workers funded by Governmant council for Roma issues work in socially excluded communities. Agency for social reintegration in institutionally is present in some of localities.
Rare provision
For more info: DOLE��ALOV��, P. Comprehensive Programs for Mothers with Substance Abuse Problems and their Children: Preventing Children School Dropout and Supporting Maternal Skills. 17. 6. 2013 2013 San Diego, USA.
No information
Rare provision
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Low
Full provision
Each school has "prevention specialist" as well as "school psychologist".
Low

Denmark

28.1
46
63.5
No information
Full provision
No smoking is allowed on school area
Extensive provision
33 % of the Danish municipalities have a written Drug Policy plan. 70 - 78 % have integrated their drug policy plan in other policy papers such as health policy og policy for children and youth. On the national level, guidelines for the primary and secondary prevetion of druguse are currently being prepared. They will be published by the end of 2013. The guidelines give a short description of the evidence and current best knowledge on methods in the field. And a list of activities and focal points are listed.
Full provision
Community-located prevention is in 97 % og the Danish communities anchored in the SSP-network. The SSP-network is a corporation between the school, the social system and the police. All communities have 1 or more employees, who have recieved special education to work with young people in prevention regarding drugs, alcohol, crime and so forth.
No information
Empowerment is not explicitly mentioned in the national action plan, but is more central in the policies of the social system
No information
Full provision
49 % of the Danish communities offer counselling to young people in the same facilities as the offer counselling to adults. 38 % of the communities have a special "youth-team", that focus on counselling the young. The rest of the communities use counselling facilities in other communities ie. buy the service in another community. This primarilly applies to the smaller communities in Denmark.
Limited provision
2/3 of the Danish communities the SSP-employees visit the primary schools and offer education on drugs and on developing life-skills to the pubils. 1/3 of the communities offer a similar service to the youth education institutions or offer "open counseling" on campus, for young people who need to talk. These counseling offers often focus on problems rearding experimental use of drugs but also often about more genereal issuses like well-being and dealing with life in general (mental health).
Extensive provision
The above mentioned SSP-employees often help young people to find other interests and new friends, when relevant. All danish communities offer a wide varity of sports facilities and clubs for young.
Low
1
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
In 91 % of the communities, the SSP-employees offer to organise af parent-evening for the parents of school children. In some communities, all parents are invited. In some communities, only parents of specific age-groups are invited
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
Many schools organise ther drug education program as project days that run for several days
Rare provision
The SSP-network is a coorporation between School, social services and the police. Hence, the employees represent all 3 istitutions. The SSP-network is - in most communities - responsible for the prevention activities towards the young. It is very rare, that a police-officer, who is not part of the SSP-network visits the schools.
Rare provision
No information
From 6th to 9th grade (twelve to fifteen years) information on alcohol and drugs can be integrated in the course ���health/sexual education and family knowledge���. In many communities this is performed by the SSP-employees.
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Limited provision
Many youth education facilities have activities focused on preventing young people from dropping out of education. One focus is on prevention of druguse mong the young. A project facilitated by national grant (satspulje) focuses on youth at youth education facilities. Through drug policies (including alcohol and illigal drugs) and early detection of problems related to drugs among the students and offering a short intervention to these people, the project aims to reduce the use of drugs and also the negative consequences, such as dropping out of school/education.
Full provision
No information
No information
No information
No information
Limited provision
No information
Limited provision
Extensive provision
It is not specifically mentioned in af drug policy, but it is mentioned as a priority in the government health initiative.
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
Full provision
General awarenes amongst teachers and the possibility of coorporating with social services and psycologist assistance and with the SSP-network, when young people explicit risk behaviours related to drug use or generel lack of welle-being. Also, all schools are obliged by law to performe a "leaving school" interview by a health care professional to the older students, where drugs and subjects related to drugs are included.
Low

Germany

28.3
32
38.5
Full provision
Berlin: Katholische Schule Sankt Marien Hesse: Martin-Luther-Schule, Marburg Schleswig-Holstein: Freie Waldorfschule Kiel
Full provision
Rauchfreie Schulen: http://www.rauchfrei-info.de/informieren/gesetzliche-regelungen/rauchfreie-schulen/
Extensive provision
Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants: Darmstadt: "Darmst��dter Pr��ventionsnetzwerk. Organisation von langfristigem und ganzheitlichem Engagement" Hamburg: "Suchtpr��vention in Hamburg" Leipzig: "Der Leipziger Weg ��� Arbeit im Netz" Nuremberg: "10 Jahre neue Ans��tze der Suchtpr��vention in N��rnberg" Communities with less than 100,000 inhabitants: Dessau: "Koordination von Suchtpr��vention und Konfliktbew��ltigung in Dessau" Ingelheim: "Kommunales Netzwerk Suchtpr��vention Ingelheim" Wallerfangen: "Miraculix" At "Landkreis" level (administrative district): Barnim: "Rahmenkonzeption f��r die Arbeitsgruppe Sucht- und Drogenpr��vention im Landkreis" Coesfeld: "Kontinuit��t und Ressourcenb��ndelung in der kommunalen Suchtpr��vention" Emmendingen: "Kooperationen und Vernetzungen im Landkreis Emmendingen und die daraus entstandenen Projekte" Esslingen: Netzwerk landkreisweiter Suchtpr��vention ��� Aktionskreis Suchtprophylaxe im Landkreis Esslingen" Project descriptions: http://kommunale-suchtpraevention.de/node/89#preise
Extensive provision
SPIN / Communities That Care, Lower Saxony: http://www.ctc-info.de
Extensive provision
In 2012, 41 % of all interventions targetted community support, involvement and empowerment systems (source: federal documentation system Dot.sys)
Extensive provision
Kinder stark machen: www.kinderstarkmachen.de In 2012, 11 % of all interventions targetted leisure time groups, 2 % continuing and family education, 1 % church, 1 % driving schools and 1 % sports clubs (source: federal documentation system Dot.sys)
Full provision
MOVE: www.move-trainings.de In 2012, 11 % of all interventions targetted youth work (source: federal documentation system Dot.sys)
Limited provision
Extensive provision
In 2012, 14 % of all interventions concerned alternatives to drug use (source: federal documentation system Dot.sys)
Medium
0
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
No provision
Extensive provision
Health Day: Jakob-Grimm-Schule, Kassel
Limited provision
Rare provision
No information
Full provision
Medium
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
In a study from 2006, L��sel et al. had found 6,183 providers of family-based interventions and a number of 27,769 different interventions in a single year in Germany. Therefore categorization of the interventions is quite problematic. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs and charities).
Limited provision
Mostly offered in selective prevention rather than in universal prevention through counselling services. Usually provided by public administration/agency along with private organizations (NGOs).
Extensive provision
The most representative example is Starke Eltern ��� Starke Kinder (Strong parents ��� Strong kids). Other interventions in place are Triple P, Eltern AG and MUT!. The Strengthening Families Program is also provided on a very limited basis. Usually provided by public administration/agency along with private organizations (NGOs).
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
"In addition to continually improving programmes and services ��� especially in relation to new forms of addiction or new psychotropic substances ��� it is also necessary to create new, specialised forms of aid and programmes. The experience in the field of counselling and treating young people who seek help because of cannabis consumption has shown that the simple geographic separation in the counselling centres for different client groups or renaming an addiction counselling centre can lead to considerably more people seeking help and taking advantage of the services provided by the counselling centres than was previously the case. (...) Numerous initiatives and projects that specifically address adolescent cannabis consumers have been developed with the support of the federal government, especially since 2003." Source: National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy", chapters B XI. and F I. (http://www.drogenbeauftragte.de/fileadmin/dateien-dba/Presse/Downloads/Nationale_Strategie_Druckfassung_EN.pdf)
Rare provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
"For every addictive substance or behaviour, the groups at greatest risk must be identified and addressed directly. (...) In order to ensure that children and adolescents have the necessary resources at their disposal, and are able to say no to tobacco, alcohol and drugs, measures to prevent addiction and promote health must support disadvantaged children and adolescents with targeted programmes in close cooperation with schools, family and youth services and parental and family counselling. (...) Stress situations, such as unemployment, also present a particular risk and must be more specifically addressed in addiction prevention and intervention." Source: National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy, chapter C II. (http://www.drogenbeauftragte.de/fileadmin/dateien-dba/Presse/Downloads/Nationale_Strategie_Druckfassung_EN.pdf)
Extensive provision
"High-risk groups include people who have had negative experiences, such as sexual abuse, neglect and violence during their childhoods, or with the addiction of one of their parents, which considerably increases the risk of later dependency. (...) Within the context of the work of the Nationales Zentrum Fr��he Hilfen (National Centre for Early Assistance), which was established, in part, in reaction to the tragic death of a child whose parents were addicted to opiates and were receiving substitute substances, all aspects that can contribute to discovering threats to the welfare of a child and to offering help to those affected on time are considered. One of the numerous model projects that test approaches to this problem is specifically dedicated to children from families with addiction histories and/or children of parents with psychological disorders. Source: National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy, chapter C II. (http://www.drogenbeauftragte.de/fileadmin/dateien-dba/Presse/Downloads/Nationale_Strategie_Druckfassung_EN.pdf)
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Low
Extensive provision
Medium

Estonia

32.5
43
73
Rare provision
Full provision
Rare provision
Since 2009 there are no nationally financed drug prevention programs at local level. Only some counties/local municipalities still finance and organize some events at local level.
Rare provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
No provision
Rare provision
Low
0
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Police is culturally not preventive but punishing institution. Police is more normative. Police prevention at schools is based on crime prevention projects.
Rare provision
Rare provision
No provision
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
Low
No provision
Low

Ireland

29.8
70
90.5
Extensive provision
The last Lifeskills Survey of all schools was undertaken in 2009 and completed responses showed: ��� 84% of primary-level schools had a substance abuse policy, ��� 96% of schools at post primary level had a substance abuse policy. Source: National Drugs Strategy 2009-2016: Progress report to end of 2012
Full provision
Smoking tobacco and related products is banned in all public workplaces.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Extensive provision
An estimated 312,615 young people aged between 10 and 24 participated in youth work activities in Ireland during 2011, according to a recent report prepared for the National Youth Council (NYCI). This figure represents 43.3% of this age cohort nationally; 54% of the participants were female and 53.3% were believed to be socially or economically disadvantaged.
No provision
Extensive provision
The vast majority (80%) of youth work organisations in Ireland providing recreational, arts and sports-related activities.
Low
0
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
No information
Rare provision
No information
Limited provision
No information
No information
Limited provision
There are sporadic reports that information only sessions on drugs are included in SPHE sessions.
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Limited provision
The National Drugs Strategy includes FOUR actions to reduce early school leaving and improve retention rates, these include targeting disadvantaged communities and supporting parents to get involved in education. The strategy also includes measures targeting young people who are early school leavers, these include education and training (youthreach).
Extensive provision
Pupils with social and/or academic problems are covered in the national drug strategy under the category of pupils at risk of early school leaving. Measures are put in place both in schools and in the home/community to support these pupils. For example, in the DEIS schools (Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools), in the 2012/2013 school year, it is reported that children and families in 860 schools with 165,350 pupils received supports. In the home/community, the Home School Community Liaison Scheme (HSCL) which was designed to involve parents in their children's education. It is regarded by the Department of Education & Science as a critical intervention in improving outcomes of children from disadvantaged areas. Also mentioned in social policies as children at risk of early school leaving.
No information
There is no specific mention of immigrants in our national drug strategy. However, some agencies provide information on services in a number of languages via their websites and in-house. In a recent report, Merchant's Quay Ireland revealed that a cohort of 338 people attending the health promotion/needle exchange unit, included were nineteen different nationalities, which highlights the ethnic diversity in those frequenting this service.
Extensive provision
The Traveller community are a priority target group in the national drug strategy. Information on drug use among travellers is improving and this appears to improve service availability. Recent research using chain-referral to recruit travellers reported the experience of women drug users for the first time. Traveller women reported that they smoked heroin and some revealed that heroin was the first illicit drug they used, when introduced to the drug by husbands/partners. Previous research which relied on service providers, disputed the use of drugs among traveller women.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Young offenders are targeted through a number of diversionary programmes including the Garda Youth Diversion Programme.
Rare provision
There is an emerging evidence base documenting the experiences of children in care and how they are often exposed to homelessness and drug use when released from institutional care. In this regard, the research by Mayock and colleagues, highlighted in our national report is informative.
Extensive provision
Youth in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods are addressed through the Local and Regional drugs task forces.
Extensive provision
Action 29 of the National Drug Strategy sets to; Develop a series of prevention measures that focus on the family under the following programme headings: Action 29 of the National Drug Strategy sets to; Develop a series of prevention measures that focus on the family under the following programme headings: - supports for families experiencing difficulties due to drug/alcohol use; - parenting skills; and - targeted measures focusing on the children of problem drug and/or alcohol users aimed at breaking the cycle and safeguarding the next generation
Extensive provision
Socially disadvantaged parents e.g. unemployed are well catered for through the provision of family support services.
Extensive provision
Families experiencing conflict and neglect are well catered for through the provision of various family support measures.
Extensive provision
Families experiencing criminal justice problems in the family are well catered for by a mix of statutory and voluntary agencies.
Limited provision
Families with mental health problems are less well catered for by statutory and voluntary agencies with reports of long waiting lists.
Limited provision
Families in the travelling community are mentioned in the drug strategy. There is limited provision of services for these families, but the situation is improving.
Low
Limited provision
Low

Greece

34.3
35
61.5
Rare provision
Full provision
Under the Greek Law, smoking is completely prohibited in all enclosed public and private workplaces with no possibility to create smoking areas, while there is special attention given to smoking bans in schools. However, according to experts��� opinion, there are several difficulties in the implementation of the Law, with regard to smoking in the school yard.
Full provision
In the framework of the national prevention policy and planning, Prevention Centres for Addiction and Psychosocial Health Promotion have been established throughtout Greece. Prevention Centres operate in the framework of the collaboration of OKANA with local authorities and local agencies. The role of local authorities is very crucial in facilitating the development of plans and strategies which would meet the local needs. The role of OKANA, as the governmental body which contributes in the process of defining, supporting, coordinating and evaluating drug policy in the country, is to ensure the coordination of Prevention Centres nationwide. Prevention Centres are co-funded by the Minstry of Health and the Minsitry of Interior, while the responsibility for the systematic supervision and evaluation of the activities implemented by the Prevention Centres lies with OKANA. For more information regarding Prevention Centres, www.okana.gr. In this framework, the 3-year work plans that Prevention Centres submit to OKANA could be considered as community drug plans taking into account local needs. The 3-year work plan includes situation analysis and need assessment, while it is approved by the Management Board of the Centre, which consists of representatives from local authorities, agencies and bodies, and then by OKANA Management Board.
Extensive provision
One of the main priorities of the National Plan Against Addictions (2011-2012) is the coordonation at national level through mainly ���the establishement of interministerial collaboration��� as well as in local level, emphasising the coordination of different institutions and agencies in the framework of holistic approach in the drugs field. Local networks of institutions involved in the drugs field and of psychosocial and mental health institutions, have been established in different areas. For example, in Thessaloniki, there is an active network under the auspices of the Municipality, coordinating the work of different agencies, such as the local Prevention Centres, OKANA, KETHEA, ARGO ��� Thessaloniki Psychiatric Hospital, METHEXIS ��� Thessaloniki Psychiatric Hospital, ARSIS NGO, PRAXIS NGO, Self-help Promotion Programme ��� Aristotle University of Thessaloniki / OKANA. Another similar example in institutional networking has been the initiative of Prevention Centre of Chalkidiki PNOI (www.pnoh-chal.gr) which has established a local network of agencies in the field of drugs, social support and mental health. In addition to these established formal networks, Prevention Centres have a close collaboration with heallth and social survices of their region , in view of coordinating action. Furthermore, Prevention Centres attach great importance to the establishment of a framework of cooperation among them. They pursue regular communication with one another in order to exchange experiences, address common difficulties and needs, and develop joint actions. Against this backdrop, in addition to the Panhellenic Network of Prevention Agencies, which has been established in 1993 within the framework of networking among institutions active in the field of addiction prevention (http://www.kpachaia.gr/panellhnio-diktyo-forewn-prolhpshs), regional and local networks have been established among Prevention Centres in view of strengthening cooperation ties.
Limited provision
The main example of an informal system of community members is the voluntary organisations organised at local level with action on drug prevention. PROTASI Movement for another lifestyle (www.protasi.org.gr) is the main voluntary organisation in the field of prevention. In addiction, Prevention Centres approach volunteers who are members of local associations or who participated in prevention interventions in the past (i.e. in the school community, in parents��� evenings etc.), and organise training seminars for volunteers and provide support to those who get further involved in prevention activities in the community. KETHEA Prevention Sector orginises training seminars and offers a variety of sevices to parents, teachers and headteachers, as well as volunteers.
Limited provision
Training community groups is one of the actions of the National Action Plan Against Addictions (2011-2012) in the field of prevention, focusing on training for different professional groups related to youth and community groups. Regarding the availability of interventions, besides schools and parents, the action of Prevention Centres also targets community groups. The main aim of community-based action is to raise community awareness and involvement in prevention interventions. The main target groups reached are members of local voluntary organisations, the Armed Forces, law enforcement, mediators (e.g. priests, camp team leaders, Sunday School teachers, members of sports or culture clubs, etc.). In the framework of the joint action in the field of drugs in the Armed Forces, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed in 2011 between the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of Health and OKANA in order to coordinate prevention interventions and to promote cooperation between Prevention Centres and the Armed Forces. KETHEA Prevention Sector organises training seminars on health promotion and prevention for mental health and social support professionals, as well as for different professional groups who come in direct contact with children and young people and who may become actively involved in prevention and act as multipliers. PROTASI Movement (www.protasi.org.gr) has been actively organising training seminars for community groups and volunteers. PROTASI approaches existing social, cultural and educational associations (parents and teachers' associations, sports clubs, cultural associations, health agencies, youth associations, etc.) with the aim to strengthen social support systems and to be empower the work of prevention.
Extensive provision
The National Action Plan Against Addictions (2011-2012) recommends the implementation of prevention interventions for young people, as well as the establishment, development and improvement of prevention interventions using niche methodologies (i.e. media and technology). Regarding the availablitity of interventions, in order to reach the youth and involve them in prevention interventions, Prevention Centres do not restrict their interventions to the school setting only. In spite of the reported difficulties in ensuring youth participation (e.g. finding time to attend, high drop out rates, etc.), prevention agencies target preadolescents and adolescents by means of interventions implemented outside the school setting. Prevention interventions involve: brief information and awareness interventions, personal and social skills training seminars, creative activities, counselling. PROTASI Movement (www.protasi.org.gr) has been running in the city of Patra (Peloponnese) a Creative Entertainment Centre for children and adolescents since 1993. The mission of the Creative Entertainment Centre is to ���give children and adolescents the opportunity, by means of alternative proposals, to use their leisure time meaningfully, in the benefit of recreation, personal development and creative expression���. In 2010 KETHEA established the Community Intervention Centre in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens. In the Youth Club a variety of creative activities, training groups, summer camps and other services for youth are offered.
No provision
Extensive provision
Several creative activities are offered in an effort to attract young children. In order to reach the youth and involve them in prevention interventions, Prevention Centres do not restrict their interventions to the school setting only. In spite of the reported difficulties in ensuring youth participation (e.g. finding time to attend, high drop out rates, etc.), prevention agencies target preadolescents and adolescents by means of interventions implemented outside the school setting. Prevention interventions involve: brief information and awareness interventions, personal and social skills training seminars, creative activities, counselling. PROTASI Movement (www.protasi.org.gr) has been running in the city of Patra (Peloponese) a Creative Entertainment Centre for children and adolescents since 1993. The mission of the Creative Entertainment Centre is to ���give children and adolescents the opportunity, by means of alternative proposals, to use their leisure time meaningfully, in the benefit of recreation, personal development and creative expression���. In 2010 KETHEA established the Community Intervention Centre in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens. In the Youth Club a variety of creative activities, training groups, summer camps and other services for youth are offered.
Low
0
Extensive provision
Apart from those on drug prevention, personal and/or social skills training is included in other Health Education Programmes which cover a broad range of topics (e.g. diet/nutrition, interpersonal relations, dealing with stress, traffic education, volunteer movement, etc.). Moreover, interventions (organised on their own initiatives not in the context of Health Education Programmes) organised by Prevention Centres / agencies and delivered either by prevention professionals or by trained teachers with the support of prevention professionals, mainly involve personal and/or social skills training, not necessarily using standardised programmes.
No provision
No provision
Full provision
Prevention Centres / agencies in cooperation with schools and parents'associations, implement parents evenings and seminars for parents at school promises.
Rare provision
Limited provision
No provision
Rare provision
Usually organised in the context of Health Education Programmes, for example at the end of their implementation for the diffusion of the results, etc.
Rare provision
Rare provision
Full provision
Information on drugs is provided into school subjects of the school curriculum. In addition, information activities on drugs are organised in schools by Prevention Centres / agencies. These activities mainly involve the provision of information on drugs and on drug use consequenses as well as on normative education.
Extensive provision
Prevention Centres / agencies implement training sessions for teachers to incorporate the principles of prevention into school life. These seminars include training in methods of experiential learning, active listening, etc.
Low
Rare provision
Prevention Centres / agencies implement training sessions for teachers to incorporate the principles of prevention into school life. These seminars include training in methods of experiential learning, active listening, etc.
Extensive provision
Widely delivered by the vast majority of Prevention Centers. Most of these meetings are based on an educational manual called Communication in the Family. Ususally delivered by public administration/agency (Prevention Centres under the supervision of OKANA).
Full provision
Parents training might include up to 15 sessions usually organized in smaller cycles (4-5 meetings) focussing on one topic, that parents can attend in a period of 2-3 years, and gives them the opportunity to participate in follow up programmes. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Prevention Centes).
Extensive provision
Prevention Centres mostly base their interventions on the Communication in the Family programme, developed by the University Mental Health Research Institute (UMHRI). But other materials from the Tacade and the Unplugged programme are also used as well as other tools for parents designed by the Prevention Centers teams. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Prevention Centes).
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Prevention Centres approach vulnerable groups mainly in the school setting targeting mostly adolescents who experiment with drugs, students who manifest delinquent behaviour as well as students with various psychosocial problems. These activities involve interventions for students, while seminars for teachers in view of raising their awareness and supporting them in case management are hold. In addition, Prevention Centres in cooperation with local schools provide counselling upon request to students with psychosocial problems. KETHEA Prevention Sector approach young people with problems of low academic performance, with mental health problems and with low parental supervision, etc. with the objective to involve them in prevention interventions. In specific, in 2010 KETHEA established the Community Intervention Centre in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens and are faced with problems as a result of social exclusion, delinquency and drug use. This Centre cooperate with local schools targeting students with psychosocial problems.
Limited provision
Prevention Centres of the Municipality of Athens ATHINA YGEIA implement interventions in cooperation with schools for immigrants' students. KETHEA Prevention Sector implement a prevention intervention for immigrants��� children aged 11-15 in order to empower children during this crucial transition from grammar school to high school and prevent school dropouts. In addition, in KETHEA���s Community Intervention Centre established in the centre of Athens in order to address the needs of young people who live in downtown Athens and are faced with problems as a result of social exclusion, delinquency and drug use, most of the young people who participate in the activities are immigrants.
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Limited provision
In view of delinquency prevention, in 1995 Juvenile Protection Associations (JPAs) were set up, under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice, in charge of preventing juvenile delinquency. These are legal entities under the public law reporting to the Ministry of Justice. They operate in the places where courts of first instance have their seat and their mission is to prevent delinquency among minors who exhibit antisocial behaviour or risk becoming perpetrators or victims of criminal offences because of inappropriate or non-existent family environment or other adverse social conditions or reasons. Furthermore, the Ministry of Justice established back in 1976 the Supervisory Juvenile Services at the Juvenile Courts, operating under the auspices of the juvenile judge in the seat of each court of first instance that has a Juvenile Court. They represent the primary non-institutional service for young offenders or minors at risk of becoming perpetrators or victims of criminal offences. They are staffed by juvenile supervisors, who work with minors upon whom the reformatory measure of supervision has been imposed (article 122 of the Penal Code), providing substantial assistance to juvenile judges in trying such cases. They also work with minors at risk of adopting delinquent behaviours because of inappropriate or non-existent family environment or other social circumstances, and provide multifaceted support to themselves and their families (www.ministryofjustice.gr). Measures of prevention and early intervention for young offenders are offered also by bodies from the field of addictions. Since 1998, STROFI Open Therapy Programme for Adolescents has been operating a Counselling Centre for Adolescent Offenders at the Athens Juvenile Court. In addition, there are some informative meetings with prison inmates and representatives of the prison staff. Drug education for young offenders: Training Icarus (TACADE, 2000), published by KETHEA in cooperation with TACADE, UK, is an educational material for professionals providing counselling and support to young people with delinquent behaviour associated with drug dependence. Prevention Centres in cooperation with schools approach students who manifest delinquent behaviour. These interventions involve activities for students, while seminars for teachers in view of raising their awareness and supporting them in case management are hold. In addition, Prevention Centres in cooperation with local schools provide counselling upon request to students with delinquent behaviour. ICARUS Prevention Unit (����TH����), established in 2004, designs and implements selective and indicated prevention interventions, targeting individuals, groups and populations running a higher risk of displaying delinquent behaviours and resorting to the use of drugs. In this framework, ICAROS cooperates with schools, counselling centres of the Ministry of Education and parent associations, as well as with juvenile supervisors and other court officers who approach young offenders.
Rare provision
IRIDA Prevention Centre of the City of Nea Ionia cooperates with the Boarding Home for Minors, hosting 8- to 18-year-old boys with family problems, for a prevention intervention with skills training and creative entertainment activities.
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Prevention Centres / agencies approach parents in the school setting mainly through the open sessions / discussions that they organise in cooperation with local schools. Through these activities parents come in contact with prevention professionals and their interventions. In addition, Prevention Centres / agencies organise parents��� parents' groups / schools helping parents to resolve day-to-day conflicts and promoting positive parenting strategies. Parents can further approach Prevention Centres / agencies for individual counselling on conflict management strategies and parenting practices. In addition, Strengthening Families Program (SFP), the North American prevention programme for parents, has been translated and adapted by Choremio Research Laboratory of the St. Sophia's Children's Hospital in Athens. In the context of its adaptation in the Greek context it has been piloted and evaluated.
Rare provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Low
Extensive provision
Prevention Centres cooperate with local schools in order to identify and to implement early interventions for pupils with risk behaviours related to drug use. Also, KETHEA Preventio Sector provide early intervention services to individuals, families, groups of adolescents and young adults at increased risk of being involved in substance use and delinquent behaviours. In specific, ICARUS Prevention Unit (����TH����), established in 2004, designs and implements selective and indicated prevention interventions, targeting individuals, groups and populations running a higher risk of displaying delinquent behaviours and resorting to the use of drugs.
Low

Spain

35
56
54.5
Limited provision
Full provision
The use of tobacco inside the schools is forbidden by law in all Autonomous Regions.
Extensive provision
80% of the municipalities of over 20.000 local residents have Drug Plans (Final evaluation of National Drug Strategy 2000-2008; Source: Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces).
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
There is a wide range of training programs for mediators, especially aimed at social workers, psychologists, etc, working in prevention programs.
Limited provision
Some regions have implemented youth counselling services in schools ("consulta joven"), carried out by health professionals from primary health care services.
Extensive provision
These interventions are common in nighlife settings of big cities and festivals, raves.
Full provision
The Government Delegation for the National Plan on Drugs has a specific line of funding for alternative leisure projects aimed at local governments (municipalities).
Medium
0
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
Most training programs for parents are delivered in schools.
No information
Extensive provision
Youth counselling services exist in Catalonia, Asturias, Andalucia, developed in coordination with Primary care health centers.One of its objetives is the screening of students with drug problems.
Rare provision
It is an unpopular measure in Spain.
Limited provision
Extensive provision
The Ministries of Interior and Education signed a collaboration agreement in 2007 to develop preventive actions in schools carried out by police officials in the classroom.
Extensive provision
Many schools are involved in this type of actions.
No information
Limited provision
Medium
Rare provision
Extensive provision
This kind of intervention is widely implemented across most regions in Spain. However most of these implementations are not supported by evidence-based programmes and often lack a sound theoretical foundation, although they might be conducted by prevention practitioners working within the local prevention units . Some Regional Governments, such as Castilla y Le��n, have lately stopped financing their implementation while promoting the implementation of manualised parenting programmes instead. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Social and Health services) along with private organizations (NGOs).
Rare provision
More common in selective than in universal prevention, although sometimes trainings are carried out to reinforce the contents of a particular programme (e.g. Moneo). Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs appointed by local/regional administrations).
Limited provision
Even though there are well-structured programmes available, very few of them have been evaluated. Moreover, the implementation of programmes with a sound theoretical basis is limited, discontinuous (due to lack of funding), and shows little parental involvement (less than 5% of parents attending). Some examples of this programmes are Aprendiendo a Comunicar (Learning to Communicate), En Familia (Among Family), Educaci��n para la Vida (Education for Life), Entre todos (All together), and Moneo. Usually provided by public administration/agency (Social and Health services) along with private organizations (NGOs).
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
Limited provision
Medium

France

30.5
57
95.5
Extensive provision
The consumption of licit or illicit drugs within school as well as the dealing or the suspicion of dealing of narcotics within school or in the vicinity are regulated by both the Public Health Code and the Penal Code. The legal provisions regarding these issues and the corresponding sanctions are specified in the school rules.
Full provision
Since the 1st February 2007, smoking is banned in France in any enclosed, covered public areas. This prohibition encompasses not only any public or private schools or any establishments where minors are educated, trained or housed (including opened/uncovered areas, such as school courtyards), but also healthcare establishments, workplaces and public passenger transport as well. In schools, the smoking ban applies to the personel as well as the students, included in the boarding facilities.
Extensive provision
Community-located prevention refers to the preventive measures carried out in frameworks other than school or occupational settings. In France, it is not as developed as school-based prevention. This kind of prevention response is mainly implemented in leisure-time or sport settings or the classified "sensitive urban areas" (ZUS). In leisure-time or sport settings, actions mostly consist in universal prevention directing either drug or alcohol consumption or doping (which is part of the addictive behaviours covered by the French anti-drug policies). In general, actions are delivered by the socio-educational professionals working in those settings or by specialised drug prevention associations. Selective prevention actions are implemented in priority neighbourhoods defined by the urban policy. The 2,492 priority neighbourhoods including 741 "Sensitive Urban Areas" ("ZUS" in French) that embrace 7.5% of the French population, are defined according to socioeconomic, housing and schooling indicators. In these areas, drug prevention actions consist mainly of outreachwork or counselling. They are delivered by drugs or delinquency prevention associations. The target publics are addressed regardless of any ethnic criteria.
Extensive provision
At the local level, interagency work is organised through coordination committees related to: - the action plans on drugs and drug addictions, defined by the prefecture in each "d��partement" (county level) - the Local Security Contracts (CLS) focused on prevention of delinquency. - the Urban Contractcs for Social Cohesion (1,290 in 2012, covering 2,500 priority neighbourhoods which are the unique contractual framework for the coherence of all public measures developped in the "sensitive quarters" to favour employment and economical development, better living environment, educative achievements, citizenship and delinquency prevention, health. The two later types of contracts come within the Urban Policy.
No information
The 2013-2017 National Drug Action Plan enhances the development of social mediation actions towards drug users and the inhabitants of the areas touched the drug related nuisances. This new governmental plan exhorts the local authorities and professionals to commit the inhabitants of these priority quarters (targeted by the Urban Policy) into the activities developed with regard to the drug risk reduction policy.
No information
In general, training programmes are delivered at county ("d��partement") level and are directed to professionals.
Extensive provision
Mainstream Youth counselling centres like the 350 Reception and Counseling Centres for Youth (so-called ���Points Accueil et Ecoute Jeunes" (PAEJ) and the 100 Teenagers' Houses, dedicated to provide youngsters and their relatives with rapid and adapted answers (information, counseling, referral to help services) in respect to adolescence related problems. They are likely to deliver drug preventive approach when needed but there is no monitoring of this kind of activities. Since 2005, a network consisting of more than 400 "Young consumer consultations" (Consultations Jeunes Consommateurs - CLC) has been set up. These entities offer free and anonymous aid and advice to youg drug users and their families.
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
0
Limited provision
In order to develop a coherent national policy of school-based prevention on addictive behaviours, the General Directorate of School Education (DGESCO) and the Interministerial Mission for the Fight against Drugs and Drug Addiction (MILDT) have made a guide for school-based prevention providers. It presents a conceptual framework necessary for prevention policy in schools and provides useful paths for the integration or the extension of this approach in relation with teaching activities. In addition, it sets the rules of intervention whether carried out by the teaching staff or by external stakeholders. Additional factsheets furnish prevention providers with relevant information on: - Links with college curricula - Psychoactive substances (nature, effects...) - The actions of drugs on the brain - The geopolitical and epidemiological data - Examples of prevention projects.
No provision
When school-based prevention actions are delivered to a specific gender, this is most often because this gender is "naturally" overrepresented in the targeted public. This is the case for instance for many vocational education establishments. In this context, the gender-specific approach is more a structural condition than a methodological choice. However, the MILDT reports that a study has recently been launched in order to compare gender-specific addictive behaviours.
No provision
When school-based prevention actions are delivered to a specific gender, this is most often because this gender is "naturally" overrepresented in the targeted public. This is the case for instance for many vocational education establishments. In this context, the gender-specific approach is more a structural condition than a methodological choice. However, the MILDT reports that a study has recently been launched in order to compare gender-specific addictive behaviours.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Peer to peer prevention approach are encouraged by the new 2013-2017 Drug Action plan.
Extensive provision
No provision
Neither collective nor individual drug testing is authorized in schools. Indeed, drug testing is perceived as affecting the human rights and the individual liberty.
No provision
Limited provision
The Police and Gendarmerie agents��� expertise regarding the legal provisions related to licit or illicit drug uses and to trafficking legitimates their contribution to drug prevention actions on these aspects. The interventions for drug prevention or awareness raising carried out by of these specialised agents from the Police or the Gendarmerie do not pose any particular difficulties from the moment that they are clearly identified and act as prevention providers and not as dissuasion agents. Wearing uniform seems positively perceived by target-publics and makes perfectly clear the statute and transparent purpose of these interveners. These agents from both administrations are specially trained to adapt their communication and educational methods to the diverse public they address.
Limited provision
Professionals from the NGO involved in drug or addiction related prevention, from health education committees (e.g. CODES), from specialized treatment centres, as well as other general health professionals (physicians, psychologists, etc) or even experts from drug information (ex: CIRDD, DDASS) are part of the external prevention providers.
Extensive provision
Information on addictive behaviours is a compulsory component of the biology curriculum in middle school (9th grade ("3ieme���) ie for pupils aged 14 to 16). Other disciplines include the information on drugs, from specific standpoints: social and civic education, physics and chemistry, French course and sport education. An interdisciplinary approach is recommended by national authorities.
Extensive provision
Since 2006, prevention of addictive behaviours has been given a new foothold in the basic missions of the French education system through the adoption of the "common core of knowledge and skills��� ("socle commun de connaissances et de comp��tences���), i.e. the set of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that all middle and high schoolers must master by the end of mandatory schooling for their life as future citizens. Two subsets of skills, the ���social skills and civics��� and the ���independence and initiative skills���, refer to individual and social skills which relate to life-skills from which pupils can source when they are offered drugs. Indeed, they aim at developing in pupils not only communication, coping, conflict management skills but also their critical mind and their sense of public-spiritedness, responsibility, solidarity, altruism, etc. However, the definition of common core of knowledge, skills and culture, will be adjusted in accordance with the law of orientation and programming for the rebuilding of the school of the Republic.
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
The 2013-2017 anti-Drug governmental plan, adopted in September 2013, mentions dropout students among the vulnerable groups for whom the development of prevention measures will be encouraged. Pupils with social, academic problems have been also explicitly targeted in the 2013-2017 Government's Youth priority plan ("Plan priorit�� jeunesse") as well as in the 2013-2017 National Plan against poverty and social exclusion ("Plan pluriannuel contre la pauvret�� et l'exclusion sociale"). The issue of early school leavers falls under the Ministry of National Education (a Ministry Delegate for academic achievement has been nominated in may 2012). The fight against school dropout is a major challenge of social cohesion and equity for the education system: ensuring equal opportunities, so that every young person can build his/her future career and successful life in the society, is the missions of the School. The Ministry of Education has set forth objectives in order to halve the number of young people leaving the educational system without qualification by 2017 and to facilitate the return to school of young people who have already dropped out. The mobilization of the entire educational community, in conjunction with local authorities and representatives of the business world, should offer a solution to every dropout students. France is part of the European strategy against dropout, with a aim of not exceeding 9.5% of dropouts aged 18-24 in 2020. Absenteeism is one of the first possible steps towards dropout or psychoactive substance uses. Herein, the fight against absenteeism stands as a priority. The plan for the prevention and fight against absenteeism is based on two principles: - Plurality, ie taking into account the multiplicity of the causes of absenteeism, then involving all relevant stakeholders in the field of education: families, the National Education staff, the associations of popular education (extra school education), Urban policy key players, etc.. - Responsiveness to support parents since measures against absenteeism are only effective if they are immediately implemented. Parenting support or social arrangements from the County administrations (The ���Conseils g��n��raux��� are the decentralised authorities responsible for the Child protection) can be mobilised at the first sign of absenteeism. The new system established to face to persistent lack of attendance, an accompanying process of parents of school-centered institution. The fight against absenteeism and violence is intended to improve the school climate and prevent risk behaviours. The networks for training-qualification-employment (FOQUALE) aim at improving the identification of resources and existing solutions that can be proposed at local level to early school leavers, complementarily to the action of the platforms for the support and follow-up of school leavers, established under the authority of the prefects. The Local Missions for the Youth's vocational and social integration (settled by convention between the State and regional and local authorities, inter alia) assist the youth in their social and vocational integration, especially those who are unskilled. Local Missions may host drug prevention actions but the occurrence of such events is not estimated.
No information
Pupils with social, academic problems are explicitly targeted in the 2013-2017 Government's Youth priority plan ("Plan priorit�� jeunesse") as well as in the 2013-2017 National Plan against poverty and social exclusion ("Plan pluriannuel contre la pauvret�� et l'exclusion sociale").
Rare provision
The 2013-2017 anti-Drug governmental plan mentions migrants among the vulnerable groups for whom the development of prevention measures will be encouraged. Some segments of the immigrant population can be more particularly addressed by drug help services when a very specific drug problem is identified. This is the case for instance of the African crack users in the north-east zone of Paris (in the 18th district). Such cases are rare.
Rare provision
The 2013-2017 anti-Drug governmental plan mentions migrants among the vulnerable groups for whom the development of prevention measures will be encouraged. Some segments of the immigrant population can be more particularly addressed by drug help services when a very specific drug problem is identified. This is the case for instance of the African crack users in the north-east zone of Paris (in the 18th district). Such cases are rare.
No information
No information
Extensive provision
Adults and minors aged 13 and over arrested have to pay for (up to a maximum of ���450, equivalent to the cost of a class 3 fine) and to attend a compulsory drug awareness-building training session on the dangers of using narcotic substances. The educational goal of these compulsory training sessions is to inform offenders about drugs, their use and misuse, and their dangers as well as the existing drug-related policies and laws and the consequences of violating them.
No information
Extensive provision
Actually, it is difficult to assess in which settings (home and street vs services or statutory bodies) this public is predominantly addressed. The 2013-2017 anti-Drug governmental plan aims at intensifying prevention actions towards the Youth in the priority quarters in the scope of the Urban Policy.
Limited provision
Rare provision
The 2013-2017 Government's Pluriannual plan against poverty and social exclusion ("Plan pluriannuel de lutte contre la pauvret�� et l'exclusion") put the impetus on addiction prevention and treatment directed to socially disavantaged people.
Rare provision
No information
No information
The 2013-2017 anti-Drug governmental plan supports the diffusion of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT), included for families presenting psychiatric disorders.
No provision
Low
Limited provision
Many school doctors and school nurses are trained in detecting students aged 12 to 18 who use psychoactive substances (alcohol, illicit drugs...). The applied detection technique has been developed and assessed by the Quebec Centre for the Researsch and Intervention on Psychoactive Substances. It identifies three levels of risk related to substance use: no or low use, high or very high use or damage reported. According to the risk involved, the student is referred to a specilsit or she/he receives a bried motivational intervention. the individual (person-focused) care is aimed at prompting a shift to a more healthy behaviour.
Low

Croatia

30.5
40
No information
Extensive provision
There is no specific protocol on how to procede with pupils using or dealing illegal drugs, but in practice, these activities include cooperation with parents and social welfare centres.
Full provision
According to the Act on Restricting the Use of Tobacco Products (OG No.125/08, 55/09 and 119/09), smoking is not allowed in schools.
Full provision
According to the National Strategy on Combating Drugs Abuse in the Republic of Croatia for the period 2012-2017 and the Action plan on Combating Drugs Abuse for the period 2012-2014, the County Committees for Combating Drugs Abuse are obliged to create local action plans in which universal prevention is an integral part.
Extensive provision
Addiction prevention programmes in the Republic of Croatia are being conducted at the level of 21 counties in which are established County Committees, which are based on the work of experts from the fields of education, social welfare, healthcare, civil society organisations, county state administration offices and other relevant institutions that actively participate in combating drugs abuse. County Committee coordinates, planns and monitors the implementation of the prevention, and other programmes that are focused at tackling drugs abuse.
Limited provision
Limited provision
National Program Of Addiction Prevention, the education of educators and mediators is listed as a priority, and in some Counties, such activities have already been implemented
Full provision
In the Republic of Croatia there are four regional info-centres fot youth, and lots of youth clubs, i.e. non-governmental organizations that provide programmes for youth and that are being supported by the Ministry of Youth and Social policies. Youth clubs are one of the priorities in the National Programme on Youth for the period 2009-2013.
No information
Full provision
These activities are mainly implemeted by NGOs, as well as schools and other relevant institutions on the local level.
Low
1
Limited provision
No information
No information
Extensive provision
Parent teacher meetings, theme based meetings for parents, parent councils in schools
No information
Extensive provision
In majority of schools, creative extracurricular activities exists and often they are injtegral part of prevention programmes.
Limited provision
Procotol for drug testing has been adopted by Governmental Committee on Combating Drugs Abuse in December 2005. This Protocol serves as a recommendation and does not have a binding purpose.
Full provision
International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking and the Drug Addiction Recovery Month
Limited provision
Police interventions in addiction prevention are focused mostly at information provision
Limited provision
External lecturers in schools are mostly different experts and physicians, not so much ex-users
Limited provision
Limited provision
In the school year 2012/2013 the Health Curriculum has been introduced in the educational system. In this programme, drug addiction has been one of the four modulles. This Curriculum still hasn't been implemented in all schools
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
Office for Combating Drugs Abuse created the National Addiction Prevention Programme for Children and Youth in Educational Settings and in Social Welfare System for the period 2010-2014 (National Programme), which was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Croatia in June 2010. Main goal of the National programme is preventing the onset of addiction among children and youth and at - risk behaviours, such as experimenting with psychoactive substances.
Extensive provision
Prevention activities of prolonged expert procedures are conducted in some primary schools in the area of the City of Zagreb and the Zagreb County, and they are organised and carried out by the professionals from the Home for Education of Children and Youth Zagreb. The professionals conduct the direct social-pedagogical work with the children included in regular primary school curriculum, and noticed in school settings for their risk behaviour and problems with social integration
Limited provision
Within social care system, experts work with immigrants on prevention of various risk behaviors, and not specifically on addiction prevention
Extensive provision
In the National Strategy on Combating Drugs Abuse in the Republic of Croatia 2012-2017 and in the Action Plan 2012-2014, Roma ethnic group is specifically mentioned. Furthermore, there is also National Strategy for Roma people 2013-2010 and Action plan 2013-2015, in which a special section is focused at addiction prevention
Rare provision
Rare provision
Full provision
Under the Jouvenile Court Act, in the course of pre-trial proceedings against a minor or younger adult, the State Attorney's Office might apply the principle of opportunity and in such a way impose a special obligation on a person to start the drug-abstention treatment and enter the work of a youth counselling centre, either individually or as a member of a group. Also, the Social Welfare Centre might pronounce an educational measure of intensified care and supervision to minors and younger adults
Extensive provision
Within individual and group work programs in homes for children without adequate parent care, educational institutions and educational centers, activities of addiction prevention are implemented.
Limited provision
Full provision
Addiction prevention for parents in risk of addiction is implemented within Social Welfare and Family centers
Extensive provision
Wiithin National Employment Promotion Plan and Mutual Social Inclusion Memorandum, a number of measures are implemented, aiming towards unemployed parents and other vulnerable parent groups, like single parents, women victims of domestic violence, parent drug addicts, former convicts, families with many children, etc.
Full provision
Law on Family, Law on Protection From Domestic Violence, national Strategy for Protection Against Domestic Violence provide measures which are implemented by family centers, social care centers, police, courts, NGOs.
Extensive provision
According to the Law on Probation, probation officers make an individual handling program for released convict, conduct monitoring over convict released on probation, and other affairs considering probation.
Limited provision
Parents with mental problems, besides treatment in health care system, are often included in social care centers treatments.
Limited provision
Low
Extensive provision
Identification of risk groups by school counselors and expert associates
Low

Italy

31.9
46
63.5
Limited provision
Full provision
Total smoking bans in school established by the recent Law Decree no. 104, 12 September 2013.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
No information
Limited provision
Low
0
No information
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
No information
Limited provision
No provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
No information
Rare provision
Rare provision
Low
Rare provision
Limited provision
Both public administrations and private organizations deliver this kind of interventions mostly within the school system. Usually provided by public administration/agency along with private organizations (NGOs).
Limited provision
Provision of trainings for family in Italy is very limited and mostly delivered by private organizations.
Rare provision
There is a very limited provision of manualised parenting programmes. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
No information
No information
No information
Low
Limited provision
Low

Cyprus

31
33
58
Full provision
Drug policies in schools receive a great deal of attention from the Ministry of Education and Culture through the newly developed schools curriculum, as well as the Cyprus Antidrugs Council through the programmes that are being funded and authorised by the CAC and implemented by NGOs. All these programmes are implemented in a number of schools all over Cyprus.
Full provision
The reason that this measure is considered to be implemented in full provision derives from the fact that the Ministry of Education and Culture circulated announcement to all schools in order to follow the Law that bans smoking in school areas.
Extensive provision
For example one of the community drug prevention programmes is the following: 'Community Psychology: Psychologists on drugs use prevention'. The programme covers 6 different areas, in four different districts.
No information
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Cyprus Antidrugs Council gives a great deal of attention in regards educating/training community groups and this is fulfilled through the programmes that are being authorized and funded by the CAC.
Extensive provision
Cyprus Antidrugs Council gives a great deal of attention in regards to youth centres, youth counseling centres or services and this is fulfilled through the programmes that are being authorized and funded by the CAC, as weell as trough the Organization of Youth Board Cyprus.
No provision
Extensive provision
The 2009-2012 National Drugs Strategy, in the prevention pillar sets as an objective the "Promotion and implementation of alternative recreational activities for young people", and identifies the following actions: 1.Financial support programme for school children with serious financial problems aimed at creative use of their afternoon hours, in activities chosen by the children themselves in their communities. 2. Promotion of recreational, artistic, cultural, environmental, sports programmes/ healthy activities in the school, the communities and municipalities, aimed at young people in general and particularly high risk youth groups.
Low
3
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Extensive provision
Events for parents are mainly provided by the Ministry of Education, Parents Associations and NGO's.
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Creative extracurricular activities are mainly provided through the "Educational Priority Zones", which include schools in identified high risk areas (deprived economically and socially), where the Ministry of Education and Culture implements prevention programmes according to the identified risk factors.
No provision
Full provision
Cyprus Antidrugs Council each year organizes in collaboration with all its associates events for the world day against drugs, and promotes them through the media.
Limited provision
No information. However, what can be stated is that they are delivered by the Prevention Unit of the Drug Law Enforcement Unit of the Cyprus Police, which has been involved in drug education, as well as drug research (in cooperation with the Cyprus NFP) for years now, aiming at the facilitation of the planning and implementation of their preventive interventions.
Extensive provision
Health education provided mostly by the Ministry of Health.
Full provision
Information on drug dependents is included in one subject in school curricula.
Limited provision
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
This target is predominantly addressed at services or statutory bodies and schools. This is fulfilled through the programmes that CAC authorises and Funds as well as through specific actions in the new national strategy. For example, the identification and support of students who belong to vulnerable groups in the school environment and support and extend of the programme against school dropout, school failure and delinquency through the 'Educational Priority Zones'.
Limited provision
Extensive provision
This target is predominantly provided through the 'Educational Priority Zones', which include schools in identified high risk areas (deprived economically and socially), where the Ministry of Education and Culture implements prevention programmes according to the identified risk factors.
Extensive provision
This target is predominantly provided through the 'Educational Priority Zones'. This is fulfilled through the programmes that CAC authorises and Funds as well as through actions in the new national strategy that concern vulnerable groups. For example, coordination of all agencies active in relation to vulnerable groups in order to develop proposals, establish partnerships and promote programs
Limited provision
Limited provision
Full provision
This target is predominantly provided through the 'Protocol of Cooperation' for the referral of young offenders to the Mental Health Services Treatment Centres, which was developed between the Cyprus Police (Drug Law Enforcement Unit ��� D.L.E.U.), the Sovereign Base Areas Police and the Ministry of Health and is coordinated by the Cyprus Anti-drugs Council. The Protocol constitutes an effort to develop social and treatment policies and measures in the framework of the criminal justice system, while through their referral to therapeutic programs young drug users are given the opportunity of an early intervention or a more intensive treatment programme.
Rare provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
No information
No information
No information
No information
No provision
Low
Full provision
An official cooperation protocol has been established for referring drug using pupils to Adolescents' Counseling Centres (Ministry of Health). Support on high risk and vulnerable pupils is offered as part of the work of school counselors and school psychologists.
Low

Latvia

35.7
41
82
Extensive provision
There exist guidance plans only in case of incident. In the municipality survey, conducted by Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, schools were asked to reply a question: is there an action plan in cases of identification of drug use, store and/or distribution. 78% of schools informed that they do have action plans introduced in general regulations of an establishment. This issue is also defined in the Regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers N277 "Procedures for Providing Preventive Health Care and Emergency Medical Assistance in Educational Institutions" (http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=207125&from=off?).
Full provision
According to national legislation selling tobacco products to persons under age of 18 is prohibited. Still, according to ESPAD 2011 (Trapencieris et.al., 2012) data 74% of 15-16 aged students said that it would be very (or just)easy for them to purchase cigarets. It is not only prohibited to sell tobacco products but also - to purchase them for persons under 18. This issue is defined in national legislation - Protection of the Rights of the Child Law, section 48. where it is defined that: a child may not smoke and use alcoholic beverages. A child shall be protected from smoking and the influence of alcoholic beverages. A child must be free of tobacco smoke and it is not allowed to smoke in a presence of a child. Also a negative attitude towards smoking and the use of alcoholic beverages shall be instilled in a child. A child shall not be permitted to work at jobs that are associated with alcoholic beverage or tobacco product manufacturing, sale or advertising.
Limited provision
According to Guidelines on Restriction and Control of Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances and Addiction (adopted by Order of Cabinet of Ministers N98 on March 14, 2011), it is defined that in order to enhance: 1) the effectiveness of prevention interventions, 2) more active involvement of municipalities, 3) the effective coordination of prevention interventions and 4) to establish a single approach to the implementation of prevention activities, it is necessary to provide municipalities with the scientific - based recommendations in the field of development of drug prevention. It is also defined that seminars, meetings are extremely welcomed in order to give recommendations to municipalities in the field of drug prevention and it's development. The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control carried out a survey on drug addiction prevention activities, suicide prevention activities and mental health promotion activities in municipalities during first half of 2013. In total 118 questionnaires were sent out to municipalities of Latvia with the request to disseminate these questionnaires also to local schools. The main aim of the survey was to clarify the situation in the field of addiction, suicide prevention and mental health promotion. Field on drug addictions consisted of 9 questions. Answers allowed to understand whenever municipalities provide universal, selective, indicative or environmental prevention. Municipalities were also asked to evaluate week and strong points of the activities they provide, possible problems and their solutions. Schools were asked about existence of action plans in cases of drug use, distribution etc., integration of drug addiction prevention questions in studying process, informative events, parent meetings etc. In total 86 filled in questioners (out of 118) were received from municipalities and 332 from schools.
Limited provision
76% of municipalities indicated that there are activities/interventions provided related to drug addiction restriction. These municipalities also emphasized significance of inter-agency team work in the coordination and realization of different prevention activities. Mostly inter-agency teams consist of Education administration, Social Service, state or municipal police, children and youth centres, health promotion institutions, NGO's and other.
Limited provision
Rare provision
Defined aim in the Guidelines on Restriction and Control of Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances and Addiction: to reduce the acceptability of illegal drug use - and it's first action: Prevention of drug addiction and use - predicts to make seminars, meetings in order to give recommendations to municipalities in the field of drug prevention and it's development, as also to provide professional development courses for pedagogues on issues related to drug addiction prevention. During 2012 with the support of Social Foundation there were courses organized for municipality workers with the aim to educate these workers in the field of health promotion and public health. Courses consisted of 30 hours - lectures and practical classes, training in development of health promotion projects. (Information on courses available on www.spkc.gov.lv)
Limited provision
There are youth centres in many municipalities. Mostly these centres are involved in the provision and organization of extracurricular activities. According to a recent survey 50% of municipalities indicated that they have youth centres and that most part of them organize general health promotion activities and only some - prevention of addictive behaviors.
No provision
Extensive provision
Term "interest education" is used for different provided sport, outdoor, art etc. pursuits. "Interest education facility"is a multifunctional institution, providing interest education, student camps in school holidays, culture events etc. According to data (Youth Policy Guidelines 2009.-2018.) there were 260 000 children involved in interest education activities in 2009. It is planned to increase the number of involved children by 10% in 2018. (http://polsis.mk.gov.lv/view.do?id=2994) Survey carried out in 2012 "Interest education in Latvia and it's role" showed that there are six main areas for provision of interest education in Latvia: culture (dancing, music, art), sport (football, chess), technical (auto modeling, plane modeling), environmental (botanic), youth work (scout, youth clubs, debates), other (journalistic, style courses). Students attend approx 1.8 interest education/hobby groups per week (Kalni��a D., Lepere D.etal., 2012., http://www.cbjc.lv/petijumi/petijuma_zinojums_interesu_izglitiba_12.pdf).
Low
0
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Limited provision
In the municipality survey, conducted by Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, 40% schools informed that they provide parents meetings on drug addiction issues and 55% of schools - on alcohol and tobacco issues.
Limited provision
In the municipality survey, conducted by Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, 32% of schools (n-332) informed that they provide leader (peer-to-peer) courses.
Extensive provision
In the municipality survey, conducted by Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, 94% of schools gave affirmative answer on provision of creative extracurricular activities.
No provision
Extensive provision
In the municipality survey, conducted by Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, 70% of schools (n=332) informed that they provide information days (project weeks, contests etc.) on addiction issues.
Full provision
Extensive provision
In the municipality survey, conducted by Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control, 77% of schools determinated that they have had psychologist visits/lectures with students, 74% schools invited GPs, drug addiction specialists, psychiatrists, 12% - invited specialists from low threshold services, 9% - former drug users, 18% - specialists from NGO's.
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control carried out a survey on drug addiction prevention activities, suicide prevention activities and mental health promotion activities in municipalities (municipality survey)during first half of 2013 (information on methodology, aims in SQ25 p.2.2.3.) Municipalities were asked on possible interventions for specific groups, also early school leavers. 21% of municipalities (n=118) answered that they do have prevention interventions for specific groups, also for early school leavers.
Extensive provision
In the municipality survey conducted by the Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, municipalities were asked to answer whenever they provide interventions for specific groups, also - youth with social and behavioral problems. 58% of municipalities gave and affirmative answers.
No provision
Mentioned in Guidelines on Community Integration Policy 2010-2019 (not adopted yet, only a project document) whereas one of the aims is to develop integration policy for immigrants.
Rare provision
Mentioned in Guidelines on Community Integration Policy 2010-2019 (not adopted yet, only a project document). Several activities for integration of Roma people are mentioned and mainly it focuses on education and employment of Roma people.
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
There is developed policy document "Guidelines on Juvenile delinquency Prevention and Child Protection Against Offenses 201.-2019." Main aim of the policy is to reduce children crime, to prevent it's contributing factors, to improve safety, to protect children from the health and life hazards.
Limited provision
There are two policy documents: Family Policy Guidelines 2011-2017 (http://polsis.mk.gov.lv/view.do?id=3583) and "Guidelines on Suitable Latvia for Children" (http://polsis.mk.gov.lv/view.do?id=1232) mentioning youth in care institutions. Still the provision is limited.
No provision
Limited provision
According to municipality survey, 23% of municipalities mentioned that they provide specific interventions for children and youth form socially disadvantageous families, also for children who's parents use addictive substances.
Rare provision
There are some projects where addictions problems are connected to employment. For example for persons who have children and are addicts, it is possible to involve in Minnesota programme free of charge and to have in-service training in parallel.
Rare provision
In the "Guidelines on Juvenile delinquency Prevention and Child Protection Against Offenses 201.-2019" there are predicted concrete actions for violence prevention in families.
Rare provision
No provision
Rare provision
Low
Rare provision
Regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers N277 "Procedures for Providing Preventive Health Care and Emergency Medical Assistance in Educational Institutions" define actions necessary to provide with children, students being in risk group, having low marks, being truants, having social problems in family, possibly using addictive substances. It is defined that firstly parents have to be informed on a problem and secondly - school psychologist has to be involved for common work/problem solving with the child. In reality it is not always working.
Low

Lithuania

32
35
82.5
Full provision
Drug use in Lithuanian schools is prohibited by the national legal regulations and the school's internal rules of procedures. This provision is set in the internal rules of procedure and the student code of conduct of every Lithuanian school. National rules which describe how to deal with students using or distributing drugs are set in the Description for organizing of determining children using narcotics, psychotropic and other psychoactive substances (Resolution No. 437 of Government of the Republic of Lithuania, April 2, 2002). The aim of early intervention is to help those who have tried to use psychoactive substances or are experimenting with them, to encourage children not to use these substances. Having identified a child uses psychoactive substances the following early intervention measures are implemented: ������ assessment of psychological, social problems of a child using psychoactive substances; ������ selection of intervention methods and means matching the child������s needs and drawing up an intervention plan; ������ involvement of the child������s parents (guardians, carers), other family members into the implementation of the intervention plan; ������ individual/group counselling and psychological assistance, counselling of the child������s family; ������ modelling of socially acceptable behaviour; ������ development of social and healthy lifestyle habits. The early intervention services are provided before mental or behavioural disorders due to use of psychoactive substances are identified. Following the Procedure of Early (for Schoolchildren) Identification of Use of Psychoactive Substances, a school (specifically ������ the head of a school or persons authorised by him/her) assumes responsibility to report a suspicion that a child uses drugs, psychotropic or other psychoactive substances, is intoxicated with such substances and that he needs medical check-ups to his/her legal representatives. Solely health care specialists can identify the use of psychoactive substances.
Full provision
The ban on smoking at school and within the territory of school is governed by the Law on Tobacco Control of the Republic of Lithuania, Article 14. It provides that the smoking in the Republic of Lithuania is prohibited in all education, training, health care facilities, as well as rooms where sports competitions and other public events are being held.
Full provision
For the management of regional and local government programs on drug control and prevention, in 2004-2005 municipalities and regional administrations established drug control commissions and approved their statutes and programs. The objective of these commissions is to conduct the national drug control and prevention of drug addiction policy and to coordinate drug control and prevention of drug addiction activities on the territory of the local governments. Also there are established Municipality Public Health Bureau, which are responsible for the healthy life education and promotion as well as for community������s concentration for fighting against drugs. Prevention is one of the four priorities in National Drug controle and prevention programme 2010-2016.
Extensive provision
Drug control commissions of municipalities involve representatives from NGO, municipal and government institutions. Commission coordinates drug control and drug prevention activities implementation at local level.
Limited provision
In Lithuania drug prevention activities are formed and implemented through drug prevention projects. State institutions provide financial support for NGO seeking to promote initiatives of NGO to implement psychoactive substance use prevention in communities for such targets groups as family, school, high-risk children and youths, etc. State and municipality institutions and organizations provide support organizing and conducting various trainings for the specialists and experts. Municipalities has educational centres, which has right to carry out qualification improvement of pedagogues, form masters, social pedagogues, public health care specialists and primary health care specialists. Municipality Pedagogical-Psychological Servises, Municipality Public Health Bureau, Drug Control Commissions of Municipalities also conduct training for specialist.
Extensive provision
Every year the Drug, Tobacco and alcohol Control Department organizes trainings for representatives of municipalities on drug abuse prevention, social and psychological rehabilitation of drug addicts; other state institutions (Ministry of Science and Education, Ministry of Health, Police Department under the Ministry of the Interior and other) organize training for specialists working in the field of drug control and drug abuse prevention. Municipalities educational centres carry out qualification improvement of pedagogues, form masters, social pedagogues, public health care specialists and primary health care specialists.
Extensive provision
There are established Lithuanian child day centers, psychological support center for youth, day centres for child and youth at risk. There is the service of helpline for child and youth, which provide psychological support for child and youth by phone, e-mail and post. For youth there are established youth centers and open youth centers/spaces (Open space is a space or premise, intended and accommodated for performance of open work with youth, i.e. could be situated in the institution (cultural, educational, sports, or social) without changing legal status of institution and accommodated for open work with youth applying the available measure or methodical base). Every municipality has youth affair coordinator, who helps to form and implement youth policy in municipality.
Rare provision
There is one mobile groupe under the Child protection office in Vilnius working in the field of children rights protection.
Limited provision
Untill 2009 state institutions and municipalities, NGO (Ministy of Science and Education, Ministry of Social Security and Labor, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Culture) were actively involved in organizing and implementing drug prevention actions which related to youth and children purposeful occupation and socialization. Due to economic crisis as well as to lower allocation there was no priority of organizing and carrying of drug prevention projects in 2009. In 2009 only one institution - the Drug Control Department under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania financed prevention activities implemented by NGO. The Program on Prevention of Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Psychoactive Substances approved by Decree No. ISAK-494, of March 17, 2006, of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania (Zin., 2006, No. 33-1197) was implemented.
Low
1
Extensive provision
Lithuania is implementing different programmes for the development of social skills, such as Life Skills Education Programme for children of all ages, Social Skills Training Programme for elementary school students, Social Skills Training Programme for elementary school students, programmes "Unplugged", "����Snowball " and etc. Educational facilities in some local municipalities carried out special activities to develop social skills of pupils in order to help them to become more resistant to possibilities of drug, alcohol or tobacco abuse.
No provision
No provision
Limited provision
Parents are also involved into drug prevention policy applied in schools, though not all types of events are arranged specially for them. Usually parents are participating in lectures and seminars that take place at school. Schools organize their own on-demand events for parents. Some schools organize get-togethers, joint events with children, parents clubs. There are schools which implements special prevention programmes like psychoactive substance use prevention programme for students, psychoactive substance use prevention programme for parents of pupils, school for parents and teachers����, Parent Effectiveness Training Programmes���� (PET) and others.
Limited provision
50 Lithuanian schools participates in the programme "����Peers to peers"����; the programme is based on the principles of method "����Forum Theatre"����.
Limited provision
Organization of workshops, lectures, discussions, competitions, prevention actions, sports activities (arrangements, tournaments), preparation and creation of reports, posters, wall newspapers are traditional forms of prevention policy and are applied in schools.
No provision
Testing of pupils for the use of drugs is not applied in Lithuanian schools. There is no any compulsory drug testing of pupils in schools, if there is any suspicion that pupil is using drugs, all necessary testing can be carried out in health care institutions, but not in the school. Every child has a right to demand for it's legal representative (parents, tutors and etc.) or for a representative of state children rights protection agency to participate in drug testing procedure.
Limited provision
School - based prevention of drug abuse in Lithuania include project weeks, competitions, expositions and etc. but all such activities in schools is not organized on a full day basis (there is no special days when all activity in school is organized only for prevention work). One third of the Lithuanian schools participate in the annual contest "Non-smoking class"����. The competition (contest) involves pupils of eight classes. Open only to the class in which at least 90 percent. students agree with the condition of the tender - do not smoke for six months.
Extensive provision
Police involvement in drug abuse prevention projects and programs implemented in schools is commonly used. Usually this involvement means lectures, seminars, discussions and other types of meetings with police officers who are describing risks and dangers of drug abuse to pupils, their parents and representatives of organizations, which works with children. During these meetings police officers are also giving advices about prevention of drug abuse and express their opinion about drug abuse.
Limited provision
Inolvement of other external lecturers in drug abuse prevention projects and programs is very commonly used. As with police officers, involvement of external lecturers means lectures, seminars, discussions and other meetings of such kind arranged for pupils, their parents and other related persons. With regard to the specificity of these external lecturers, it is important to mention that they usually are medical personnel from certain health authorities, officials from judicial system (not only police officers, but also judges, prosecutors and etc.), members of non-governmental organizations which task is drug abuse prevention. Nurses of school communities works in much of the schools. One of the features of their work is to teach people a healthy lifestyle.
Extensive provision
Integrated lessons about healthy way of living is also part of drug prevention policy in schools. Information about drugs and other psychoactive substances (emphasizing different aspects about dangers of their abuse) for pupils are provided during lessons of biology, religion and ethics. Information about drugs may be included in to learning material of these subjects, though not all schools use this opportunity and integrated lessons at this moment remains only as additional (not main) method of drug abuse prevention.
No provision
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
There are no special provisions in legal acts which specifically regulates drug prevention among early school leavers. Drug prevention in this particular population segment is based on general provisions and principles which are applied to all children and people of young age. All prevention work is carried out in educational facilities (schools, professional schools, colleges and etc.) by social pedagogues, social workers, teachers and other school personal. So early school leavers are able to access and participate in drug prevention programs implemented and sponsored by ministry of Education and Science when they use services of educational facilities. The Program for Reinstatement to School of Children who are not attending School adopted by the Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania (��in., 2008, No. 140-5558) states the main interventions seeking to solve the problem of not attendance school. It could be in the schools area, where social educators are responsible to notice, assess as well as to solve the problem of not attendance school, other academic and social problems in time. Also it could be out of school e.g. in Municipality Pedagogical-Psychological Servises which focus on working with children and their parents concerning psychological, academic and social problems. Last shift for not attendance school could be minimum care according to the Law of child���s minimum and medium care (Zin., 2007, No. 80-3214, Zin., 2010, No. 157-7969). According this law in shools and municipalities there are Child welfare commissions, wich deal with drug control and drug prevention questions besides other its responsibilities too. The minimum care measures can be applied to children who do not learn or do not attend regular school. Several measures can be applied: obligation to attend specialist consultations, obligation to study according to basic education programs, obligation to attend a day centre, obligation to participate in social education, integration, prevention and other programs. These measures can be implemented at schools, municipal and non-governmental institutions.
Rare provision
There are no special provisions in legal acts which specifically regulates drug prevention among pupils with social, academic problems but it is important to mention, that pupils with social, academic problemas are included in group of children with special needs and in group of children at social risk (such as delinquent children, children from families with social problems, children who already suffered from drug abuse and etc.). Every year (until 2009 year) the Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania was implementing various prevention programs: Program for Organization of Summer Holidays for Children, Program for Crime Prevention Among Children, National Program for Control of Drugs and Prevention of Drug Abuse, Program for Purposeful Occupation of Children. With help of these programs children who are at social risk were able to access summer recreation in special camps for free and to have additional upbringing after lessons in school. All these measures were implemented in order to decrease risk of delinquent behavior among children of social risk and to prevent use of drugs and other psychoactive substances. Due to economic crisis as well as to lower allocation there was no priority of organizing and carrying of prevention programs by the Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania. In 2009 only one institution ��� Drug Control Department under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania ��� financed prevention activities implemented by NGO. The Program on Prevention of Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Psychoactive Substances approved by Decree of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania (��in., 2006, No. 33-1197) is currently implemented. All prevention work is carried out in educational facilities (schools, professional schools, colleges and etc.) by social pedagogues, social workers, teachers and other school personnel as well as in Municipality Pedagogical-Psychological Services focus on working with children and their parents concerning psychological, academic and social problems.
No provision
Adequate assistance for every person in need is provided. If the migrant people have acquired the status of legal citizenship they will be entitled to the same services to all individuals in Lithuania.
Extensive provision
For different social groups social support is provided without discrimination on grounds of sex, race, religion, age, ethnic origin and other. In 2008-2010 was implemented National Programme for Roma integration into Lithuania society.
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
There are no special provisions in legal acts which specifically regulates drug prevention among youth in care institutions. Youth in care institution usually have psychological, social, academic problems, experience of psychoactive substances use, and can also be approached at schools by social pedagogues, social workers, teachers and other school personnel as well as in foster homes by psychologists, social pedagogues through various prevention programs, e.g. life skills education, drug prevention programs, etc. The Kaunas Juvenile Remand Prison and Correction House implements from 2013 the Program of early intervention carried by Drug, Tobacco and Alcohol Department for users of psychoactive substances.
Rare provision
According The Law on Social Services municipality is responsible for providing social attendence for families at social risk and social care for adults at social risk. Social attendance for families at social risk should be financed from funds of a municipal budget and from special targeted subsidies of the state budget to municipal budgets.
Limited provision
No provision
Social services in every municipality are be provided to a family at social risk by helping to develop the social skills and motivation of family members to create a safe, healthy and harmonious environment at home and to participate in the labour market. Reponsibility for organizing this services lays on municipalities, but targeted subsidies from state budget are available for municipalities and these subsidies covers the main part of the funds needed for providing this kind of services.
No provision
Family conflict and violence are defined by Lithuanian Seimas Law of protection from domectic violence (Zin., 2011, No. 72-3475). There is a Mother and Child Crisis Center in Vilnius, in which mothers can live temporarily because of suffered violence in their family.
No provision
No provision
No provision
Low
Limited provision
Low

Luxembourg

28
37
32.5
Extensive provision
Full provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
No provision
Limited provision
Low
0
No information
Rare provision
"Girls day" organised once a year
No provision
Full provision
parents evenings
No information
Limited provision
No provision
Limited provision
Depending on time resources of the national Drug Prevention Centre and trained Police officers intervening in schools settings.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Ex-user accompanied by a teacher (author of a book on the life of said user) are visiting school classes to share experience.
No information
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
The Ministry of National Education provides a service called "Action locale pour jeunes" helping early school leavers.
Extensive provision
The Ministry of National Education provides to pupils with social and academic problems a service called "Psychology and school orientation Center".
Extensive provision
The Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI - Ministry of Family and Integration) is in charge of implementing and coordinating the Government's reception and integration policy. The most representative association in Luxembourg providing support for immigrants is the ASTI association (asti.lu).
Extensive provision
OLAI, ASTI association
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
The "Service Th��rapeutique Solidarit�� Jeunes" (Solidarit�� Jeunes association) provides psycho-social care to underage and juvenile drug use offenders.
Extensive provision
The National Addiction Prevention Center (CePT) provides prevention interventions in care institutions for youth as foressen in the national drug action plan 2010-2014.
No provision
Extensive provision
Since 2003, the Youth-and Drughelp Foundation (JDH) is running a project called "Parentalit��" with the aim to provide pscho-social aid to drug-dependant parents and their children.
Extensive provision
Financial assistance is provided by the Ministry of Family in form of a Minimum Guaranteed Income (RMG).
Extensive provision
A social and family mediation is provided by 3 associations (Centre de consultation et de m��diation familiale, centre de m��diation asbl, Familjen-Center (CPF asbl)).
Extensive provision
A judicial help service is assured by the Ministry of Justice.
Extensive provision
Different associations financed by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Family provide free of charge consultations for families with mental health problems.
Extensive provision
ASTI association, OLAI
Low
Full provision
Via ad hoc school psychology departments and in collaboration with specialised agencies
Low

Hungary

26.9
48
59.5
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
0
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
No information
Low

Malta

27.1
56
45.5
Full provision
A national policy on procedures to be taken in case of drug use and potential use in schools was published by the Ministry of Education in 2001. The document 'National Policy:Tackling Substance Abuse' gives clear procedural guidlines for intervention to Educators who find themselves in situations of dealing with such issues,.
Full provision
Extensive provision
Full provision
Extensive provision
Sedqa, the national drug agency in the country provides a specific program inlvoving drama which targets parents as well as young people.Talks are available on request for both parents and school teachers (this is provided on request from schools).
Extensive provision
28 parenting skills courses were carried out in the year 2012 with 421 participants benefiting form them.Tthese were carried out in schools and other community centres.
Limited provision
Most prevention services in Malta are school based. However Sedqa does offer training and programs at youth organization level and at the place of work. Caritas also offer weekend seminars for young people.
Limited provision
Limited provision
The need for improvement of services related to alternative forms of leisure, especially through sports is highlighted as one of the actions within the National Drugs Policy. Provision exists but more effort could be given to recruiting young people.
Low
1
Extensive provision
This training is basically done by PSD teachers and counsellors in schools, through the TFAL programme in primary and the Crossroads programme for teachers who in their capacity can monitor children in schools and guide them accordingly.
No provision
No provision
Extensive provision
Such initiatives are organized on request by the head of the respective school.
Extensive provision
Agencies make use of seminars and week-ends live-ins which are organized for young people who are or may be in a position of leadership among their peers (prefects, bus prefects, school council members and potential leaders).
Full provision
Provision exists for the introduction of extra curricular activities for young people within their schools. Importance is given particularly to sports, music, art and other forms of hobbies.
No provision
Extensive provision
Organizations working in the field of prevention organize week end seminars in the form of live-ins for young people. The target group is most often young people in their final two years of secondary school (Forms 4 and 5). Also one day seminars are organized by Sedqa, targeting children aged 10-11 years and focusing on Decision Making, Assertiveness and Awareness of peer pressure. Sedqa also offers intervention with young children (7-8 years old) attending year 3 of primary school. These sessions consist of six one hour sessions based on the enhancement of living skills. During the summer months, when students are on holidays, those children opting to attend summer school have the opportunity to attend a 3 day prevention program.
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Agencies often involve former client or clients in treatment in the delivery of talks focusing on their personal experience of drug use. Also, programs which are not delivered by school teachers involve a number of expert speakers (police, medical staff, drug professionals working in treatment/prevention).
Extensive provision
Information is included in primary school years (most often during PSD classes)and in secondary schools through the integration of the subject into the curricula of PSD, Maltese Language Lessons, Social Studies and Home Economics.
Limited provision
LifeForce International is a Christian Organization volunteering in schools, churches and community centres across the world. The group makes use of drama to address drugs and alcohol, violence, bullying, peer pressure, relationships, self-esteem and choice making. The target population for this group are senior secondary school students. Since this is an international, travelling group it is not always available in Malta, hence the reason for listing it down as limited provision.
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Since sedqa���s Secondary Prevention Team (which used to run Boosters) was amalgamated with Appogg���s Youth Outreach team and moved to Appogg, Boosters was discontinued.But the work is continuing through family visits and office visits with professionals.
No information
No information
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
SEDQA (National Drug Agency) provides a program which focuses on young people and children who are in resuidential care. The program aims at: - self esteem - ability to express feelings - assertiveness - problem solving
Limited provision
The National Drug Policy mentions explicitly the need for an interdisciplinary approach which brings together stake holders (service providers, professionals, educators, civil society, youth organisations, parishes, media, local councils....)in providing adequate prevention services to young people in general and more specifically to youth at risk.
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
services such as the Initial Response Services and the Youth in Focus, which are part of Agenzija Appogg, cater for the disadvantaged on a one to one or through Parenting Skills groups.
Extensive provision
No information
Extensive provision
No information
Low
Full provision
In Malta we have the Anti-Substance Abuse Unit within the Education Department which can be called in to intervene in cases of risk. School staff are encouraged to identify any groups or individuals who may be experimenting or are in a potentially risky position so as to be able to recruit help from the various professionals available (councillors, drug professionals, police...)
Low

Netherlands

25.4
47
66
Rare provision
Limited provision
An estimated 25% of schools has a smoking ban. The ministry of Health Welfare and Sports decided this is at the school discretion (nota 126135-105670, 15 june 2013). Additional subsidy for school grounds improvements are conditional to a smoking ban.
Extensive provision
The ministry of Health Welfare and Sport coordinates prevention activities, and emphasised the role of neighbourhoods for implementation of health prevention in the Agenda for the National Prevention Plan, which includes substance use (12 april 2013, 108173-101510-PG). Municipalities are responsible for carrying out prevention activities and to formulate local prevention policy every four years (T.K. 31316-3).
Extensive provision
The Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning) requires municipal authorities to provide the advancement, facilitation and maintenance of the ability to cope independently of the citizen and their participation in our society and the compensation of limitations thereby experienced by the citizen. The municipal authorities are capable of offering tailor-made support that is close at hand, for example within a person���s own area or neighbourhood, in cases whereby the citizen cannot participate independently or with help from within their own surroundings. The municipal authority will make the connections thereby between other municipal domains, such as the policy in the area of debt help, adaption of the home, reintegration and support or the accommodation policy. (1 June 2011, DLZ/KZ-U-3067294)
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Youth and family centres 'centrum jeugd en gezin' http://www.cjg.nl/
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Nearly 9/10 children aged 4-18 participate in sports (for more than 1 hour per week (landelijke Jeugdmonitor 2010). This is 66% among young adults 18-25.
Low
0
Rare provision
Rare provision
There are programs at some schools to prevent girls for falling into the hands of "loverboys".
Rare provision
Limited provision
Engagement of parents is part of the Healthy School and Drugs.
Rare provision
Peer-to-peer approaches are usually included in programs for targeted prevention.
Rare provision
These activities are mostly organized in the form of targeted prevention.
Rare provision
Drug testing of pupils in schools is still against the rather tolerant climate in the Netherlands, but that climate may be changing and seems to be already changing at some schools.
Rare provision
No provision
Limited provision
Some schools provide external lectures by ex-users or ex-addicts or former police officers, but that is not organized systematically.
Rare provision
Since there is already the program the Healthy School and Drugs, no further information on only drugs needs to be included.
Rare provision
Medium
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Parents meetings and evenings are organized in most municipalities and nearly all high schools in the Netherlands carry out meetings on drug use. Most representative programmes are Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS) and De Gezonde School en Genotmiddelen (the healthy school and drugs). These meetings are mostly organized by or in collaboration with public health authorities and addiction care agencies and mostly delivered by Municipal Health Services or Prevention Departments at institutes for drug addiction. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Extensive provision
Parents' training or coaching is provided by many municipalities. The trainings often focus on parenting skills and how to discuss difficult topics such as smoking, alcohol and other drug use with children. A free online training, Praten met uw kind, is also available. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Extensive provision
Most representative programmes would be Prevention of Alcohol use in Students (PAS), which targets alcohol as well as tobacco use, and the Triple P programme. Other programmes for parents, focusing less or more on substance use, are also available. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Limited provision
The respective ministries have declared: "Under the Care in and around School Bill,9 schools are required to identify the early signs of problems among their pupils, including alcohol and drug use." Source: T.K.24077-239. Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal vergaderjaar 2009-2010 publicatie-nummer 24077 nr.239 (2009)[House of Representatives of the States General]. Drugbeleid; Hoofdlijnenbrief drugsbeleid [Drug policy; Letter with main outlines]. Den Haag [The Hague]: Sdu Uitgevers. Pupils at risk of dropout are mainly targeted at the schools, but it has been noticed that the schools are in need of more support and knowledge about how to deal with this problem. It is recommended to adopt a low-threshold and school-based approach in co-operation with other institutes that deal with problem youth. Source: Ter Bogt, T., Van Lieshout, M., Doornwaard, S., and Eijkemans, Y. (2009). Middelengebruik en voortijdig schoolverlaten: twee onderzoeken naar de actuele en gepercipieerde rol van alcohol en cannabis in relatie tot spijbelen, schoolprestaties, motivatie en uitval. Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut. An additional school doctor visit/contact in adolescence is announced by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport (VGP/3120762 d.d. 25 June 2012) and implementation plans are being developed.
Extensive provision
The respective ministries have declared: "Under the Care in and around School Bill,9 schools are required to identify the early signs of problems among their pupils, including alcohol and drug use." Source: T.K.24077-239. Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal vergaderjaar 2009-2010 publicatie-nummer 24077 nr.239 (2009)[House of Representatives of the States General]. Drugbeleid; Hoofdlijnenbrief drugsbeleid [Drug policy; Letter with main outlines]. Den Haag [The Hague]: Sdu Uitgevers. Pupils at risk of dropout are mainly targeted at the schools, but it has been noticed that the schools are in need of more support and knowledge about how to deal with this problem. It is recommended to adopt a low-threshold and school-based approach in co-operation with other institutes that deal with problem youth. Source: Ter Bogt, T., Van Lieshout, M., Doornwaard, S., and Eijkemans, Y. (2009). Middelengebruik en voortijdig schoolverlaten: twee onderzoeken naar de actuele en gepercipieerde rol van alcohol en cannabis in relatie tot spijbelen, schoolprestaties, motivatie en uitval. Utrecht: Trimbos-instituut. An additional school doctor visit/contact in adolescence is announced by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport (VGP/3120762 d.d. 25 June 2012) and implementation plans are being developed.
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Open and Alert
Limited provision
Full provision
Alcohol abuse among young people is recognized as a national problem in the Netherlands, and by now young people at risk of alcohol abuse are targeted throughout the whole country.
Limited provision
Limited provision
It is now recognized that drug and alcohol abuse play an important role in evoking domestic violence and it has been recommended to treat these two problems, domestic violence on the one hand and drug and alcohol abuse on the other hand, in combination.
Extensive provision
"There are various instruments within juvenile criminal law and criminal law for the compulsory treatment of young people who have a drug or alcohol problem and also engage in criminal behaviour." Source: T.K.24077-239. Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal vergaderjaar 2009-2010 publicatie-nummer 24077 nr.239 (2009)[House of Representatives of the States General]. Drugbeleid; Hoofdlijnenbrief drugsbeleid [Drug policy; Letter with main outlines]. Den Haag [The Hague]: Sdu Uitgevers.
Extensive provision
for parents: Kop Op Ouders, De ouder-baby interventie for children: Piep zei de muis, KOPP/KVO ondersteuningsgroepen families: Psycho-educatieve gezinsinterventie online: Kopstoring.nl, Survivalkid.nl
Limited provision
High
Limited provision
In practice, early identification depends much on the initiative of individual teachers. An additional school doctor visit/contact in adolescence is announced by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport and implementation plans are being developed.
Medium

Austria

27.6
31
44
Full provision
The development of school policies is getting more and more important. On the one hand, the network "Healthy schools" aims at developing and implementing a healthy school environment, which includes also addiction prevention. On the other hand, school policies are often developed in the context of coping with cases, when students/pupils are suspected of using illegal drugs.
Full provision
Since 2006 smoking is prohibited in public areas/buildings and therefore also in all public schools. But the school communities can individually decide on dedicating a certain area on the school ground as smoking area.
Rare provision
A growing number of communities, which implement community-orientated addiction prevention, also include the development of local plans for addiction prevention (e.g. Upper Austria and Lower Austria). Addiction prevention often is also a part of health promotion activities in communities, for which a structured process (including the definition of objectives) might be used - especially in those communities, which cooperate in the network of health promoting communities.
Limited provision
Social services (including social welfare) are in general available everywhere in Austria. But they are not provided as a coordinated network system with the objective of addiction prevention. Still, the competence centre of the department for youth and families of the city of Vienna ("Drogenkompetenzzentrum der MAG ELF"), which is also mentioned in the Viennese drug strategy, can be seen as such a coordinated network system. Besides this specific support concerning addiction for health and social services is mentioned as objective in the extension of the addiction plan of Carinthia as well as the prevention strategy of Salzburg.
Limited provision
The training of different kinds of multipliers in communities is part of most community-orientated prevention interventions. In Lower Austria for example, youth counsellors in the Public Employment Service (AMS) are mentioned especially. Peers are supported and trained rather in the context of alcohol prevention (e.g. in Vienna), the same is the case for the support of sports clubs etc. Relatives are supported either in specific cases by the drug help system or addressed as parents by addiction prevention interventions in schools and kindergardens.
Limited provision
See previous comment. Besides these activities there is also training for other addiction prevention experts mentioned for example in the addiction plan of Lower Austria.
Extensive provision
Youth centres and youth counselling centres are available extensively in cities (e.g. Vienna). In rural areas the provision is rather limited.
Extensive provision
Mobile teams for youth are available extensively in cities (e.g. Vienna). In rural areas the provision is rather limited.
Extensive provision
To provide alternatives to drug use is an important part of most addiction prevention interventions in communities. This strategy is for example mentioned explicitly in Lower Austria, Tyrol and Salzburg.
Medium
2
Extensive provision
Life skill approaches and social learning theories are the main basis for school-based addiction prevention in Austria. Besides this, social learning is supposed to be included in teaching in schools. But it is not possible to assess to what extend and in which quality this is taking place.
Rare provision
Gender-specific interventions are still rare in Austria and mostly limited to special sessions within a prevention project which are delivered separately for girls and boys. But wherever it is possible, girls and boys are separated for addiction prevention workshops. Concerning eating disorders there are not only separate workshops but also different contents.
Rare provision
Gender-specific interventions are still rare in Austria and mostly limited to special sessions within a prevention project which are delivered separately for girls and boys. But wherever it is possible, girls and boys are separated for addiction prevention workshops. Concerning eating disorders there are not only separate workshops but also different contents.
Extensive provision
School-based prevention measures mostly aim at the integration. It also can include participation of parents and offer specific parents evenings or workshops for them.
Extensive provision
Activities which are based on peer-education models are implemented in several provinces (e.g. Upper Austria and Salzburg), but they focus mainly on alcohol.
Extensive provision
Extracurricular activities like theatre and sports are an important element of school-based addiction prevention in Austria (e.g. Lower Austria).
No provision
Rare provision
Information days about drugs which are not part of a wider prevention strategy are not considered "state-of-the-art" of addiction prevention in Austria. Nevertheless, such activities are still taking place in some schools.
Extensive provision
Police officers are still involved a lot in school-based prevention as external lecturers in cooperation with addiction prevention experts - but their task and role is defined by a decree of the Ministry of Interior, which also includes a mandatory training. In Upper Austria, Tyrol and Styria cooperations with the prevention units exist, to ensure a good quality.
No information
External lecturers are often involved in prevention measures in schools, but it is unclear to which degree.
No information
Prevention units offer information on drugs only in the context of structured prevention programmes. But it is unclear, how other external lecturers deal with this issue.
Extensive provision
Addiction prevention is included in the school curricula as part of the principle "health education" and is supposed to be integrated in all subjects taught in schools. But it is not possible to assess to what extend and in which quality this is taking place.
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
New interventions are planned for those cases, where pupils don't visit school although their attendance is still compulsory. The legal basis for these interventions is already under development. But there is no special connection to drug use. See also National Report 2013.
Extensive provision
This target group is for example mentioned in several addiction drug plans/strategies. E.g. young people without jobs or participating in measures of the Public Employement Service (AMS) are mentioned in Lower Austria.
Rare provision
Interventions for migrants are mentionedin the new strategies for Lower Austria and Styria. Both types are relevant: "go-structures" esp. in form of outreach work for young people in public places addressing often migrants as well as "come-structures" esp. in form of youth centres which also are often used by young migrants.
No information
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
For example a specific project for this target groups is implemented in Carynthia (Way out).
Limited provision
The target is mainly adressed in the care institutions where they live. In Vienna a "competence centre for addiction" exists already for a long time within the administration in charge of youth welfare in order to ensure proper support of young clients as well as staff and an adequate response to problems. Besides this, staff of youth welfare institutions is supported and trained by drug counselling services in other provinces too, e.g. in Carynthia or Salzburg.
Extensive provision
Mainly outreach work in public places (esp. parks, squares where young people meet) in order to address socially disadvantaged young people and to provide (leisure time) activities for them (see also migrants).
Limited provision
Mentioned for example in drug strategy of Vienna, Carynthia and Styria.
Limited provision
Limited provision
No provision
Limited provision
Special focus is on those families, where addiction (in many cases alcohol) is the problem of one or both parents. The objective of many activities is to improve the sensibility among multiplicators in various institutions.
No information
Low
Extensive provision
The interactive computer based secondary prevention training programme "Step by Step", which is designed to facilitate early recognition and intervention for schools, is meanwhile applied in many schools in nearly all Austrian provinces. In addition, a national policy regarding appropriate responses and procedures in case of drug using students is existing (Art. 13 of the Narcotic Substances Act). A decree of the BMUKK provides more detailed guidelines on how the school system has to cope with students, who are suspected of using illegal drugs.
Low

Poland

30.9
43
82
Extensive provision
The Ministry of National Education recommends to prepare and implement in each school special procedure of responding in the case of pupil with drug problem. In 2012 the procedure was available on the webpage of Ministry of Education.
Full provision
Full provision
In accordance with the Act of Law of 29 July 2005 on Counteracting Drug Addiction communal governments are obliged to prepare and implement their communal programmes of counteracting drug addiction. In 2012 2137 communes (86% of the total number of communes in Poland) prepared and implemented communal programmes.
Extensive provision
On the local level interdisciplinary teams are set up and operate in accordance with the Act of 29 July 2005 on Counteracting the violence in family. Team consist of representatives of police, health facility, education, social welfare, ngo, commision for solving of alcohol related problems.
Limited provision
Extensive provision
In 2012 - 507 communes (20% of the total number of communes in Poland) organised trainings for different groups engaged in drug prevention.
Limited provision
No provision
Extensive provision
The National Programme for Counteracting Drug Addiction 2011 - 2016 set out the course of actions for the communal and regional governments to support and develop of the outside school offer for youth.
Low
3
Extensive provision
No information
No information
Limited provision
Limited provision
Full provision
Rare provision
No information
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
High
No information
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
In Poland the Psychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres, Community clubs, Sociotherapeutic Centres cooperate closely with schools. Every young people and them parents can get psychological help or support in those institutions.
Extensive provision
In Poland in nearly all schools there are schools pedagogues or psychologists which are responsible for the providing specialistic help. In 2012 1.585.156 pupils recive specialistic support in Psychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres. In Polan are specific instytutions where pupils can take the part in prevention programmes wich are implemented in i. e. Community clubs, Sociotherapeutic Centre. In Poland are also Youth Sociotherapeutic Centre, Youth Education Centre, School and Education Centre which offer more specialistic help. In those institutions are special programmes for pupils who have social, educational and psychological problems. For pupils who have educational problems are special places Volunatry Labour Corps Units, In 2012 almost 8 000 pupils recive specialistic support in Youth Sociotherapeutic Centre, Youth Education Centre.
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
FreD goes net early intervention programme. The programme was implemented by 15 NGOs in 27 cities. It targeted young occasional or problem drug users aged 14-21, excluding drug-dependent individuals. Sessions are held in small groups. The programme uses the motivational interviewing method. The aim is to make participants become more reflective, improve their knowledge of drug use, motivate them to assess risk and act responsibly, change attitude and behaviour related to drug use and get insight into the local drug services. The programme���s effectiveness was verified in evaluation studies. Fred goes net was conducted by qualified trainers according to the pre-defined standards. The KBPN-sponsored programmed attracted 2 124 participants (including 308 parents and representatives of partner institutions ��� police, courts, prosecutor���s offices, schools).
Extensive provision
Young people who present individual, family and environmental factors for risky behaviour, i.e. minors endangered by delinquency and depravity, juvenile delinquents at risk of social exclusion, drug addiction and children and adolescents experimenting with drugs or using them occasionally can get help in those institutions: Youth Sociotherapeutic Centres, Youth Education Centres and School, Education Centres and Volunatry Labour Corps Units.
Extensive provision
Youth in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods can recive support in many Community clubs and Sociotherapeutic Centres. The programmes aimed at reducing risk factors in family and peer environment. In 2012 National Bureau supported programmes which were intended to improve emotional and social functioning of children and adolescents and help to solve drug-related critical situations. The programmes included over 300 000 participants across Poland and were conducted by NGOs. The National Bureau also supported drug prevention programmes which included over 11 000 occasional drug users. The programmes were intended to change attitudes to drug use and reduce risk related to occasional drug use. The activities were implemented directly in the community of occasional drug users or groups at risk of drug use, including entertainment settings (clubs, discotheques, open air events). National Bureau in 2012 supported 121 programmes all around Poland targeted especially at young people from marginalised neighbourds, at risk of social exclusion.
Extensive provision
In Poland there is a wide range of Institution which offer support for all famimilies and family members such us Psychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres, drug and alcochol addiction treatment centres. In Poland the institution which is resposible for solving alcohol problem is the State Agency for the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems (PARPA). It is a specialized government agency subordinated to the Minister of Health. It develops and presents expert opinions on draft laws and action plans in the field of alcohol policy.
Extensive provision
Social disadvantaged parent can recive suppor in special institutions i.e. District Employment Offices, Social Services where they can recive psychological and financial support.
Extensive provision
In 2012, the National Bureau co-financed provider training of the ���Family Strengthening Programme 10-14���. The aim of the programme is to reduce drug and alcohol consumption as well as risky behaviours in children and adolescents aged 10-14. This aim is achieved through developing parenting skills and exercising control over children as well as improving interpersonal and individual skills among young people. In 2012, the Centre for Education Development supported the organization of trainings for the School for Parents and Educators programme. The programme builds solid ties between parents or educators and children ��� the crucial protective factor for problem behaviours. It teaches how to introduce healthy discipline and respond adequately to child misbehaviour. The School for Parents and Educators is implemented in a cascade-like manner through the network of trainers who prepare programme providers.
Limited provision
No information
No information
Low
Full provision
Each school is obliged to prepare and implement prevention programme as well as the procedures of identification and way of intervention in the case of danger of maladjustment.
Low

Portugal

34.5
41
58.5
Extensive provision
Globaly, each school or school Grouping have their own norms and procedures and approach to situation of suspicion, use and trafficking of psychoactive substances (PAS), usually based on the legal portuguese framework and Ministry of Education directives.
Full provision
Extensive provision
Almost all local units have or support interventions with the participation of local entities.
Extensive provision
Interventions based on local diagnoses that are frequently renewed with the participation of the local units, local agencies, target population and informal leaders.
Limited provision
Locally, according to the design and aims of the interventions exists peer training and peers interventions.
Limited provision
Locally, according to the design and aims of the interventions, exists community groups training and community groups interventions.
Limited provision
There is a national network of youth centers based in the main cities, provided by the Local health sistem and the Portuguese Youth Institute and other responses arising from youth protection policies - Commissions for Minors Protection, among others.
Limited provision
There are local mobile youth teams, based in the main cities, provided by Portuguese Youth Institute and other responses arising from youth protection policies, the Portuguese Red Cross Youth, among others. Some intervention projects in recreational and academic settings use mobile teams to approach the target groups
Limited provision
There is more investment on targeted interventions, however,some projects that use this kind of strategy are functioning. In addition, we seek to answer the requests from other entities to support this type of activities.
Low
6
Extensive provision
No provision
No provision
Limited provision
Each school or grouping school organize their own initiatives according to the Health School programs.
Rare provision
Project "Copos, quem decide ��s tu", implemented by Portuguese Red Cross Youth with the SICAD support
Extensive provision
National Network of Health Promoting Schools, extra-curricular activities, activities with NGOs, local associations, etc.
No provision
Extensive provision
The "International day against drug abuse and illicit trafficking" - 26th of june and other events framed in the school dynamics related with health promotion
Extensive provision
Limited provision
There are ponctual and structured collaborations of experts in psychoactive substances and health professionals (doctors,nurses, psychologists, etc)at the request of schools or integrated interventions.
Full provision
It is part of the curricula of all levels of education in various disciplines, namely biology, natural sciences, etc.
Extensive provision
As part of the heath promotion program existent on each school or grouping school in all levels of education and the National Network of Health Promoting Schools.
Medium
Rare provision
As part of the heath promotion program existent on each school or grouping school in all levels of education and the National Network of Health Promoting Schools.
Limited provision
Some parents associations like the National Confederation of Parents Associations (CONFAP) and the National Confederation of Families Associations (CNAF) promote this kind of meetings that mostly provide informative sessions and are mainly implemented by local NGOs. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs).
Rare provision
Provision is rare due to lack of knowledge on the programmes and scarce funding. Some examples of these programmes would be Searching for the Family���s Treasure, Strengthening Families and The Incredible Years. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs, individual professionals).
Rare provision
Searching for the Family Treasure and Strengthening Families are good examples of well-researched programmes but mainly focusing on selective family prevention. Mais familia ; Ser familia is another programme being implemented but it does not have a substance use prevention perspective and no evidence on its effectivity is available yet. An implementation and evaluation of The Incredible Years programme was carried out by the University of Coimbra, Faculty of Psychology. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs, research tems).
Rare provision
Under the Ministry of education there is a range of measures for alternative education to underachievement pupils and school leavers, namely the Integrated Programme for Education and Training
Limited provision
Under the Ministry of education there is a range of measures for alternative education to underachievement pupils and school leavers, namely the Integrated Programme for Education and Training
No provision
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Rare provision
No information
No information
High
Limited provision
Since 2006 is taking place, co-directed by Casa Pia de Lisboa CPL, Ministry of Education and the IDT,I.P/SICAD, a project on prevention of psychoactive substance use. This project, integrated in the CPL health promotion intervention program, is focused at young school and an institutional setting is a preventive response to psychoactive substance consumption and healthy development promotion for students at CPL. The intervention focused on two complementary aspects: strengthening qualification of the preventive intervention by conducting training activities for professionals; leaflets on the procedures to be used in situations of suspicion/consumption/trafficking of psychoactive substances addressed to students, families and social educative agents which includes a "Guide of procedures and approach to situation of suspicion, use and trafficking of psychoactive substances" and also awareness on risk of drug use and socio-emotional competences.
Low

Romania

33.2
44
71.5
No provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Low
0
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Extensive provision
Full provision
Full provision
No provision
Full provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Rare provision
Limited provision
No provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Low
Limited provision
FRED GOES NET program supported by the NAA
Low

Slovenia

23.7
43
74
Extensive provision
Regulations of school order in the middle schools
Full provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
No information
Limited provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Low
0
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
No information
Extensive provision
No provision
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Police directorates and police stations are included in the life of each local community. They know the pulse of everyday life in local communities, social networks and the strength and weakness of informal communities. Therefore, they are very important partners when it comes to drug prevention. With the efforts of all those involved we hope that in the future we will manage to achieve greater cooperation between the various professional disciplines, to establish a dialogue between them and to provide them the basis for more effective approaches. All these measures could significantly facilitate the efforts of the representatives of the police in the area of ������drug prevention approaches to reduce addiction in the local community and beyond. Majority of the police officers (who are engaged in drug prevention activities) emphasizes the need for prevention campaigns to be undertaken professionally. They also express the need for additional training regarding preventive approaches. They also perceive a lack of drug prevention didactic tools. The police is one of the most significant links with local population, however, there is a lack of cooperation between different professional disciplines
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Low
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Although widely implemented, no evidence based interventions are delivered or systematically supported. Mostly implemented by social services and NGOs within the school system. Usually provided by public administration/agency along with private organizations.
Rare provision
Apart from the piloting undertaken for the programme The Incredible Years and the Strengthening Families Program there are no other interventions with the exception of some lectures, known as 'parents schools', in kindergartens and schools. In general, the content of these interventions is up to each school and usually organized as several lectures given by people who is active on the topic. Usually provided by public administration/agency along with private organizations.
Rare provision
No interventions know apart from the pilot implementations of the programmes The Incredible Years and Strengthening Families Program. Usually provided by public administration/agency along with private organizations.
Rare provision
Rare provision
No provision
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
Rare provision
No information
Full provision
Centers of social work (there are 63 CSWs), Counseling centers for children, adolescents and parents (there are just 3 CCCAP in three major cities)
No information
Rare provision
Rare provision
Low
No provision
Low

Slovakia

25.3
39
54
Full provision
Norms and agreements how to deal with pupils having problems with illicit drugs (consumption or distribution) are set in Education and Administrative Chart (developed by Ministry of Education). Illicit drugs,alcohol and tobacco consumption is strictly forbidden at the school premises, violation by pupil must be solved always with parents or persons who take legal care over the child.
Full provision
Total smoking ban in school was set by the Act No. 377/2004 of Col. on protection of non-smokers as amended.
Full provision
Principles and tasks of several SK National programmes and/or Action plans (related to prevention, health promotion, antidrug strategy for legal and illicit drugs, prevention of criminality, rights of children, state policy for children and youths, etc ) are included into the Educational and Administrative Chart (developed by Ministry of Education) binding on each school, and all school facilities. The Chart (Pedagogicko-organiza��n�� pokyny in slovak language, hereafter POP) provides the framework and individual schools and school facilities have free hand in forms/types of activities, events and programmes implemented in local settings. For instance the school year 2012/13 POP is to recommend the programmes and activities within those questions: Safety and prevention,healthy life style,elimination of the risky behaviour, truancy, safe internet, prevention of human trafficking, prevention of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs consumption.
Limited provision
Formal interagency is limited and depends on local/regional terms - and people I would say - mostly financial. On the other hand in each locality/teritory there are the elements of "Prevention System" starting with school coordinators, school psychologists, medical professionals,psychologists and pegagogues from Psychological and Preventive Centres, through church, local administrative commisions, police (state and community), local NGO, etc.and these "elements" cooperate among them on informal way.
No information
No information
Training for community groups - better say for individuals who are involved into community interventions is rare. Some didactic forms (incl.written materials) are offered by NGOs which apply for finances/grants of the National Antidrug Strategy or Criminality Prevention Strategy - so called social prevention activities
No provision
Existing Youth centres or youths counselling centres are not aimed on drug prevention, however they should be able to give advice where to go, and/or what to do
No provision
Mobile teams are rare. There were some "night patrols" in some slovak cities compositing from parents,municipal police staff and young member, such teams were acting to accompagne young people - teenagers from night clubs.
Extensive provision
Alternatives to drug use and also some other forms of risk behaviour are offered in the Centres of Leisure in forms of creative writing, photography, sport and outdoor activities - tourism,rock-climbing,biking etc. There was rather big activity of NGO named "Take a ball, not the drugs" who has organised a competition among schools in "Eton fives" for 8 years. Last year (2012) 8000 boys and girls form Eastern Slovakia participated in the competition.
Low
3
No provision
No provision
No provision
Full provision
Parents��evenings are regular, but they are not specially aimed on drug prevention - they are aimed on education process and pupils��results.Of course if some problems concerning drug problem in general it is presented ( for instance warning on new psychoactive substances in legal market). Special parents��s evenings of such type are rare, but they exists. Individual problems of individual pupil are discussed only with his/her parents and possiblities how to help him/her are proposed (to visit Psychological and Preventive Centre or school psychologist)
Full provision
The training of peers is provided in the Psychological and Preventive Centres. Than they act in non-formal activities mostly and/or in structured programmes.
Full provision
Creative extracurricular activities are the agenda of school/community Centres for leisure time
Full provision
Drug testing of pupils in schools is not possible - in the suspicion of drug consumption, and after the approval of parents only health professionals and in healthcare premises can test urine,salives and/or blood.
Full provision
Information days about drugs (illicit and legal and risk behaviour related to drugs and/or sexual behaviour) are organised during international commemoration days (in May - "Anti smoking" day, June - International Day against illicit drugs trafficking, December 1 st - AIDS/HIV )
Extensive provision
Full provision
Experts as physicians and psychologists are regularly taking part in school discussions on drug consumption and its consequences on health and personal development. Presentation of ex-users is limited
Full provision
Information on drugs (all psychoactive substances) are included into school curricula and information are presented in various school subjects - biology, chemistry,ethics/religion, civics etc.
Full provision
Information on drugs and related prevention "messages" including social norms, competences are mostly the theme within the ethics/religion,civics and class-master lessons/subjects
Low
Rare provision
Information on drugs and related prevention "messages" including social norms, competences are mostly the theme within the ethics/religion,civics and class-master lessons/subjects
Limited provision
School administrators and pedagogues along with the prevention coordinator within the school system deliver these interventions. The interventions include information on protective and risk factors seeking to involve parents in organizing attractive forms of prevention for their children targeting alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Rare provision
Trainings are hardly provided although they are available in some locations. Usually provided by private organizations (NGOs).
Limited provision
The school prevention programme The Way to Emotional Maturity targeting 12-15 year-olds, includes one module with a family dimension, training parents to communicate with their children and cope with problems. The programme, developed by the Slovak psychologist ��tefan Matula from the Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology began its implementation in 1999 and, up until now, almost 400,000 children have attended it. A cluster randomized control trial regarding the effectiveness of the school-based intervention Unplugged was carried out in Slovakia, within the framework of a research project, and the programme was validated. However, the programme is not commonly applied in schools and further research is needed before its implementation into regular practice. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
No provision
Truancy is observed by schools and date on numbers of absenting school lessons are statistically processed (by statistical agency of Education resort,what is Institute of Information and Prognosis in Education). In general the truancy is growing - measured by the number of school lessons/hours absented - the leaders are pupils in grade 6.-9. of Elementary schools and pupils in vocational school 15-18 years old, mostly in regions of Eastern Slovakia with the highest concentration of socially marginalised (Roma) inhabitants/settlements. Problems with truancy are (in individual cases) the agenda of Psychological and Preventive Centres (come in-structures.) Problems with truancy in "group mode" are partly discussed by social workers and/or so called healthcare asistants acting in Roma settlements.
Extensive provision
The National Antidrug Strategy appeals for high attention paid to risk groups, (not explicitly to the types of risk/vulnerable groups) and to support monitoring and evaluation of activities in selective and indicative level of prevention. Also some other political documents and/or Action plans appeal on concentration on problems of risk groups ( risk behaviour, criminal offences, trafficking of people). The education sector disposes of "come structures" (Psychological and preventive Centres,Diagnostic Centres,Therapeutical Sanatories and Re-education Centres), sectors of social affairs and sector of health dispose by "go-structures".
No provision
Immigrants are included into concept of vulnerable and risk group
Limited provision
The wording "ethnic group/s" is not used in SK officialy. There are concept of vulnerable and risk groups, incl. socially marginalised/excluded and multifold affected population - mostly of Roma ethnic, but not exclusively (homeless people,unemployed, young people left from state care ...)
Limited provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
If young offenders are minors (14-18 years) there are special re-education centres (of residental care) and also special penitertiary facility for young offenders - "come structures"
Limited provision
Some type of helping structures services (go and come) are provide by NGOs
Rare provision
Not explicitly mentioned in social policies or in drug strategy. It is much more question of "public nuissance" raised by individuals and/or groups in communities and it is the agenda of social workers and community/municipal police and authorities
No provision
see 3.1.2 At risk families which are key agenda of social affairs and family sector are all types mentioned, i.e. substance abuse, inluding alcohol, socially disadvantaged parents,family conflict and neglect, criminal behaviour, mental health problems and ethnic families.
Rare provision
No provision
No provision
No provision
Rare provision
As was said before there is no such wording as ethnic family - socially marginalised and excluded families are involved in social agenda and there are special programme of social assistance for Roma settlements done by social workers and also the special programme of Healthcare sector in form of "health assistents" who are acting in Roma communities.
Low
Limited provision
Searching for vulnerable individuals is done by class-teachers. Individual problem pupil (with behaviour disorders) is recommended (parents have to be informed) to visit Psychological and Preventive Centres, where professionals point out the problem and set the way how to help pupil (selective prevention/indicative prevention in "out client" process or to to put him/her in residential care of special school facilities (Terapeutical sanatory, Diagnostic centre and Re-education Centre)
Low

Finland

25.9
55
115.5
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
0
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
No information
Low

Sweden

24.8
48
118.5
Extensive provision
Each school must have discussed how they shall handle different situation, such as smoking on the school yard, where we have a national law that it is forbidden.
Full provision
We have a law which says that it is forbidden to smoke on the school yard, but not all school have succeed to fulfil this law.
Extensive provision
Community Drug Plans are not explicitly mentioned in the strategy for alcohol, narcotic drugs, doping and tobacco policy (2011-2015) but there is an emphasis on the development of a structured, long-term and knowledge-based local drug preventive work. About 70 percent of the Swedish municipalities had a local alcohol and/or drugprevention policy in 2012.
Extensive provision
Example: About 80 percent of the municipalities did cooperate with the police authority in the preventive work regarding narcotics in 2012 and about half of the municipalities did cooperate with the health-care sector.
Limited provision
Cooperation between the local municipalities and other local authorities, the local business sector or non-profit associations is common in the drug preventive work. Also parents are important partners in the drug preventive work. Almost 70 percent of the municipalities offered programmes on alcohol and drugs for parents. Example: EFFEKT (formerly the ��rebro Prevention Program) seeks to reduce the use of alcohol by teenagers by changing the attitudes of their parents. Information is disseminated to the parents at middle-school parent meetings. EFFEKT is offered in approximately 60 % of the Swedish municipalities. This might also influence the use of narcotics among the youths.
Full provision
In many different professions efforts are made to train staff in drug-related issues. There is an extensive system of local and regional drug coordinators in Sweden who have the task of disseminating knowledge about the national strategy for alcohol, narcotic drugs, doping and tobacco policy and to mobilize efforts for various professional groups and the civil society. Under the government's cannabis initiative during 2012, special efforts have been made to organize conferences and training courses on cannabis-related issues for various professional groups that meet young people such as staff in social service, schools, health care service and the police authority.
Full provision
A prioritized goal in the strategy for alcohol, narcotic drugs, doping and tobacco policy (2011-2015) is to intensify the efforts by the healthcare service to prevent ANDT-related ill-health. This includes the work by the student health service and the youth guidance centers.
Extensive provision
Local social workers tries to get in contact with youth in different places (schools, youth centers, online, streets, etc.). According to a survey in 2010 there are about 500 field workers in Sweden. Also schools and after-school centers have some outreach activities.
Extensive provision
Cooperation in the prevention work between municipality authorities and non-profit organizations of different kinds is common in Sweden. In 2012 about 30 percent of the municipality authorities cooperated with sport associations to prevent the use of narcotics and about the same number cooperated with religious communities. Also government grants are provided to nonprofit organizations with the purpose of encouraging voluntary work in the field of drug prevention (In 2013 about 40 million SEK was provided as government grant to nonprofit organizations for alcohol, narcotic and tobacco preventive work).
Low
2
No provision
Limited provision
Limited provision
Full provision
The Swedish National Agency for Educationdoesn't implement specific programmes for drug prevention. The Agency has a commission during 3 years to support schools in "Health Promoting School development" which means to develop a school with good relations, motivation, good feedback, no bullying, a school where the pupil can succeed which is the most important preventive factor for children's future health. The concept of HPS also includes to raise the quality of the education about ANDT.
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Rare provision
Drug testing in schools is allowed if the testing take place with the full consent from the student, and parents of under age students. A student always has the right to refrain from participating in the test, without having to explain why. On suspicion of drug use, schools should always contact the relevant authorities, such as social services, police and health services.
Full provision
Limited provision
The police is an appreciated person by the pupils.
No information
Youth Clinics exists in almost all municipalities, and staff from the clinic might be involved as external lecturers.
Extensive provision
The Swedish National Agency for Education doesn't implement specific programmes for drug prevention. The Agency has a commission during 3 years to support schools in "Health Promoting School development" which means to develop a school with good relations, motivation, good feedback, no bullying, a school where the pupil can succeed which is the most important preventive factor for children's future health. The concept of HPS also includes to raise the quality of the education about ANDT.
Full provision
The Swedish National Agency for Education doesn't implement specific programmes for drug prevention. The Agency has a commission during 3 years to support schools in "Health Promoting School development" which means to develop a school with good relations, motivation, good feedback, no bullying, a school where the pupil can succeed which is the most important preventive factor for children's future health. The concept of HPS also includes to raise the quality of the education about ANDT.
Low
No provision
The Swedish National Agency for Education doesn't implement specific programmes for drug prevention. The Agency has a commission during 3 years to support schools in "Health Promoting School development" which means to develop a school with good relations, motivation, good feedback, no bullying, a school where the pupil can succeed which is the most important preventive factor for children's future health. The concept of HPS also includes to raise the quality of the education about ANDT.
Extensive provision
A universal programme provided by the municipal social services is Effekt (formerly the ��rebro Prevention Program). Effekt is a programme specifically designed to help parents to prevent underage drinking. The programme is offered to parents of 13-year-old children through the school system, and delivered by professionals from the municipal social services. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Extensive provision
Community Parent Education Programme (COPE), seeking to reduce conduct problems and daily problem behaviours. Provided by the municipal drug prevention coordinator. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Extensive provision
These interventions are mostly targeting parents whose children have shown some degree of behavioural problems. Programmes available include the COPE programme, provided by the municipal drug prevention coordinator and/or County Administration drug coordination function, as well as Komet, Connect, The Incredible Years, Triple P, and ABC (a Swedish programme). Increasingly these programmes are being made available online (e.g. I-Komet). Usually provided by public administration/agency.
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
Cooperation between the police authority, the social service, parents and the health care with the purpose of early discovery of narcotic drug use of youths and young adults was established in 70 percent of the swedish municipalities in 2012.
No information
No information
Full provision
The social service sector in the municipalities is responsible for supporting people in need of assistance, for example families in which one or more family members are substance abusers. Since June, 2010 the healthcare has to pay particular attention to children���s needs of information, advice and support if the patient are a parent and substance abuser
No information
No information
No information
Extensive provision
In the national strategy on alcohol, narcotics, doping and tobacco a priority objective for the strategy period is that ���Children growing up in families with addiction, mental illness or violence should be offered appropriate support���.
No information
Low
Extensive provision
The Swedish National Agency for Education doesn't implement specific programmes for drug prevention. The Agency has a commission during 3 years to support schools in "Health Promoting School development" which means to develop a school with good relations, motivation, good feedback, no bullying, a school where the pupil can succeed which is the most important preventive factor for children's future health. The concept of HPS also includes to raise the quality of the education about ANDT.
Low

United Kingdom

32.8
74
75.5
Full provision
In England advice for schools includes having clear written policies for dealing with drug related incidents. Schools are expected to be closely linked to Targeted Youth Support or wider children���s services for young people who need them. In Scotland, individual schools have their own policies regarding both legal and illegal substances. In Wales, revised guidance for Substance Misuse Education (SME) was published in early summer 2013. The guidance covers all organisations in the statutory, voluntary and independent sectors that offer educational opportunities to children and young people under the age of 19. It provides detailed information in areas relating to the delivery of appropriate SME according to curriculum requirements and specific need; substance misuse incident management including support; legislation and good practice.
Full provision
Smoking in all indoor public and work places is banned throughout the UK since 2007.
Full provision
The 2010 Drug Strategy has, as one of its three strands, reducing demand, which covers a range of prevention activities. The new local Health and Wellbeing Boards will develop Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (JHWS), which will be informed by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs). Statutory guidance on JSNAs and JHWSs will emphasise that these must include the health and social care needs of all children and young people. There is also statutory guidance, which sets out expectations for providing a range of positive activities for young people at the local level. At a national level, Government is providing evidence of what works in the field of prevention through the Centre for Analysis of Youth Transitions (CAYT) repository and the Early Intervention Foundation. In Scotland, there are 30 local Alcohol & Drug Partnerships (ADPs) responsible for formulating and implementing local alcohol and drug strategies to address substance misuse in local areas and this includes the funding of drug treatment and drug prevention services.
Full provision
Drug Action Teams are local strategic partnerships working to deliver the drug strategy at local level. A similar approach is found in NI, Scotland and Wales. In Scotland, each ADP has a local alcohol and drugs strategy which aims to ensure all relevant partners can contribute to the identification of local needs and focus investment. In England, Health and Wellbeing Boards aim to ensure multi-agency working between health, education and wider services to meet the needs of young people and 98% of Local Authorities have Targeted Youth Support (TYS) in place in some form which aims to link different agencies and specialisms and to provide early interventions with drug or alcohol use. In Wales, from April 2013 the planning and commissioning of services will move predominantly to the Area Planning Boards (APBs) which operate on a regional (Health Board) basis. The membership of the APBs includes representatives from all the responsible authorities which comprise Community Safety Partnerships to enable statutory responsibilities in respect to substance misuse to be discharged at a regional level. APBs are required to work with local authority/CSP areas in their area to ensure that a robust substance misuse commissioning strategy is developed.
Extensive provision
The Department for Communities and Local Government has a Troubled Families Unit which works with, amongst other things, substance misusing parents. The Frank drug information and advice service was updated last year to contain more information for parents and direct them to other sites for support. The Department for Education are currently contracting for a new drug and alcohol information and advice service for practitioners which will support teachers and other professionals who work with young people and substance misuse. In NI DACT teams support community services. In Scotland ADPs are embedded within wider arrangements for community planning and have a strategic role in co-ordinating efforts to tackle problem drug and alcohol misuse in the local area. The Scottish Recovery Consortium received funding to help develop recovery communities in Scotland and promote recovery. In Scotland, a number of local recovery communities, including recovery cafes, are emerging offering peer support. In Wales a national Peer Mentoring Scheme offers support to assist with the successful transition from treatment to employment, education or training. New child protection legislation has introduced Integrated Family Support for families affected by substance misuse and is currently being piloted.
Limited provision
In England funding has been provided to develop a national network of family self-help groups via increased training, information and support. Scotland���s drug strategy aims to ensure that the principles of recovery are reflected in training and workforce development programmes.
Extensive provision
It is a priority in NI, Wales and Scotland, mentioned in England. In England, within the context of local partnership, local authorities have specific strategic responsibility for co-ordinating the overall local offer to young people (which includes all available provision not just that funded by LAs) and for making best use of public resources. They need to do this working with young people, communities and local partners including the voluntary sector, and other agencies such as health and police. In Scotland, the Scottish Government funded (Young Scot) to develop the capacity of substance misuse peer educators across Scotland, by establishing Youth Investigation Teams to investigate substance misuse in their area and prevention
Rare provision
Mobile teams for youth would not be organised nationally but commissioned through local Children���s Services, Drug Action Teams (and by Alcohol and Drug Partnerships in Scotland) etc. to address local needs. They are mainly offered by independent drug charities. Detached youth workers and street-based teams are a central part of activity to prevent youth crime and associated problem behaviours. These teams have identified alcohol and, to a lesser extent, drug use as common issues they come into contact with and, under multi-agency working arrangements, have sought to address these. Though some of this work could be considered ���outreach��� with more high risk groups these teams are also used to deliver more universal education and information services and come into contact with a wide range of young people with varying need.
Extensive provision
In Scotland the CashBack for Communities scheme includes in range of partnerships with Scottish sporting, arts and youth work organisations to deliver a programme of diversionary activities for young people. The programme is funded using monies recovered from criminals under the Proceeds of Crime Act. In England there is a statutory duty on Local Authorities to make provision for young people in local areas on positive activities. Positive Futures projects are targeted at the most deprived areas and under the ���Aiming High��� scheme 2.5 million young people have benefitted from new provision of positive activities over the past three years and over two thirds of young people aged 11 to 15 benefitting from cultural activities for five hours a week or more. In Wales diversionary activities are planned and commissioned locally by Community Safety Partnerships based upon locally identified need. In Wales, diversionary activities are planned and commissioned locally based upon locally identified need by Community Safety Partnerships in conjunction with Young People Drug and Alcohol teams and Youth Justice Services.
Low
0
Limited provision
PSHE could be seen as a standardised approach. There is also the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) approach and the ���whole school approach��� to health and wellbeing which focuses on building children���s general life skills. These cut across risk areas such as drug misuse or sexual health and are embedded in national strategies and the expectations on schools.
Rare provision
Gender and other personal characteristics should be considered in planning sessions and programmes of prevention.
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Extensively offered, take up may be variable can be difficult to engage parents. Locally determined to address need.
Rare provision
In England Peer to peer programmes are locally determined. Also, in Scotland there is a pilot scheme underway known as ASSIST, although this mainly deals with smoking prevention, there is potential to extend its use to other substances
Rare provision
Rare provision
No national policy but it is an option that an individual school may use. The joint DfE /ACPO drug advice to schools does not advocate the use of drug testing. Although no figures are available, it is likely that few, if any, schools actually do this (e.g. perhaps in response to one off events or a drugs incident in school).
Limited provision
Limited provision
ACPO's guidance in England (ACPO 2006) and Safer Schools Partnerships in high crime areas are aimed at early intervention and prevention include a partnership role for community police officers who are based in schools. Elsewhere there is a more structured approach. In NI there is a police education programme e.g. solvent education with strong lay support . See comments above on the delivery of Choices for Life in Scotland ��� SCDEA is a police agency in Scotland and is now part of Police Services Scotland. These events aim to re-enforce classroom teachings avilable to all children in the final year of primary schools. The All Wales School Liaison programme is run by police officers. This serves to enhance relationships between Police and young people subsequently impacting on cultural views.
Limited provision
Few standards and criteria for external providers in England. In Scotland a wide variety of organisations and individuals will be invited into schools. In Wales provision is locally developed and delivered
Extensive provision
All schools in England should deliver PSHE and are encouraged to make links to wider subjects where appropriate. Scotland���s Curriculum for Excellence embeds substance misuse education to develop understanding of the use and misuse of a variety of substances, including drugs, prescribed medicines and solvents, and develops understanding of long-term consequences of life-choices.
Limited provision
In England Government are encouraging the use of evidence-based life skills programmes which cover a range of risky behaviours. In Scotland the Schools (Health Promotion and Nutrition (Scotland ) Act 2007 is supported by guidance on a whole-school approach to promoting the physical, social, mental and emotional health and well being of pupils and staff.
Medium
Limited provision
In England Government are encouraging the use of evidence-based life skills programmes which cover a range of risky behaviours. In Scotland the Schools (Health Promotion and Nutrition (Scotland ) Act 2007 is supported by guidance on a whole-school approach to promoting the physical, social, mental and emotional health and well being of pupils and staff.
Extensive provision
Parents evenings are provided extensively in schools. Family support groups - as a separate concept - may be delivered by a range of other services, including charities or NHS health services or local authority funded social services. Usually provided by public administration/agency.
Limited provision
In England there is increasing support for parents and families through schools, including school-based parenting support advisors who provide support to parents in developing their parenting skills. This is delivered according to local need and in the context of wider services. Usually provided by public administration/agency
No information
There are a number of manualised parenting and family programmes offered in the UK. Some of this aim to prevent substance misuse, but not all of them are framed in this way, even though they address know protective factors against substance misuse. Examples include the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 and Triple P.
Extensive provision
In England the Government���s intention is to reduce the need for exclusion by supporting schools to manage behaviour and to intervene earlier to address any underlying causes of poor behaviour. The Government is currently trialling a new approach to exclusion in a number of local authorities whereby schools retain responsibility for permanently excluded pupils and work in partnership to secure better outcomes for pupils at risk of exclusion. The Department has consulted on a package of reforms of alternative provision (AP), based on the recommendations in Charlie Taylor���s report on AP, and is now taking these forward. They should lead to a sector where those responsible for commissioning provision can choose between a range of high quality providers to find the best way to meet a child's needs. PRUs will have the autonomy to make best use of their resources, and most will in time have converted to AP Academies. AP Free Schools will have introduced diverse provision into areas where it is needed, and other voluntary sector and independent providers will offer services to meet needs that cannot be met elsewhere. In Scotland the ���More Choices, More Chances��� strategy aims to reduce the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET). Locally, LA-led MCMC Partnerships are driving a multi-agency approach to ensure the learning and wider support systems deliver better outcomes for those most at risk of moving into a negative destination beyond school. Activity focuses on early identification and on-going tracking and monitoring of those at risk; early intervention to keep them engaged in learning; and re-engaging those who have disengaged to get them back into the system. Every authority has a Youth Employment Action Plan to focus activity. This activity includes delivery of Activity Agreements which are a first step engagement model for many young people aged 16-18 (focusing on 16-17 year-olds) who have disengaged from learning or training and who have multiple barriers to employment. Opportunities for All, introduced in the Scottish Government���s Programme for Government in 2012 ensures a commitment to an offer of a place in learning or training for those 16-19 year-olds not already engaged.
Extensive provision
In England the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) should help identify pupils needs at an early stage. Service commissioning is determined locally, on the basis of a local needs assessment. In Scotland, the Additional Support for Learning Act places education authorities under duties to identify, make provision for and review the additional support needs of children and young people for whose education they are responsible. Barriers to learning may arise for any reason including due to health, or as a result of substance misuse. Education authorities can request support from other agencies including health and social work services in carrying out their duties.
Rare provision
The new local Health and Wellbeing Boards will develop Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (JHWS) which will be informed by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs). Statutory guidance on JSNAs and JHWSs will emphasise that these must include the health and social care needs of all children and young people. These should be responsive to the patterns in drug use and misuse amongst these groups. While immigrants are not explicitly mentioned within national drug policies there is a clear expectation that local agencies base their service provision on the JSNA.
Extensive provision
Different answer between countries in the UK with some answering At services or statutory bodies (when the target groups visit them) "come-structures Local authorities are expected to consider the needs of different ethnic groups within their Health and Wellbeing Strategies In Scotland several small research and action research projects have been carried out to illustrate the nature and extent of BME communities��� knowledge and use of illegal drugs, their issues and needs and access to services in order to increase knowledge, capacity and skills in this area.
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Dedicated substance misuse workers within every youth offending team (YOT) are able to assess the levels of need that individual offenders have and either refer on to other services or deliver some prevention/early intervention work within the YOT itself. There are additional programmes for young people in custody aimed at tackling existing use and preventing further use. In Scotland the Preventing Offending by Young People Framework focuses effort on young people between the ages of 8 and 16 it recognises the need to start prevention work earlier and sustain effort on the transition to adulthood. Through the whole system approach to young people who offend, currently being rolled out nationally, we ensure that a holistic response to dealing with young people is used, where all factors, including any drug misuse issues are addressed in conjunction with other needs. Throughcare Addiction Service (TAS) provides continuity of care for those leaving custody who are not subject to statutory supervision and wish to go on to receive addiction services in the community. This is a national service provided through local authority groupings as the lead agency working alongside SPS, the Alcohol and Drug Partnerships and other stakeholders. The objective is that TAS achieves a seamless transition from substance misuse work undertaken during the custodial period through the immediate post-release period onto the provision of continuing substance misuse work in the community. Substance misuse is one of the primary predictors of future offending behaviour among children and young people. The joint Youth Justice Board (YJB) and Welsh Government youth offending strategy aims to support YOTs and other partners to understake work to prevent and divert children and young people from substance misuse. The Welsh Assembly Government established the Safer Communities Fund during the period of the previous substance misuse strategy to support CSPs and YOTs in this work. Every young person who enters a YOT in Wales, including those released from custodial sentences, is assessed to determine levels of need in relation to substance misuse.
Limited provision
Getting it Right for Every Child is the Scottish Government���s approach to working with all children and young people and has an acute focus on improving outcomes. GIRFEC concentrates on the child���s individual needs and wellbeing, and seeks to build an appropriate response to these needs and risks. The Looked After Children (Scotland) Regulations provide the legislative framework for the planning and care of children once they have been identified as needing to be looked after, CEL 16 (2009) instructed all Scottish Health Boards to undertake health assessments for all looked after children within 4 weeks of becoming looked after, This will enable any identified needs to be included and addressed in the child���s plan.
Extensive provision
In England in the 2011 Positive for Youth strategy. In Scotland, local authorities, police, health services and third sector organisations in each local Local Authority Area, work together as Community Learning and Development (CLD) Partnerships. Each CLD partnership is required to develop a Community Learning and Development Strategy that is relevant to the priorities and needs of their local area. Where drug misuse is identified as a problem, CLD partners are able to work with other agencies and community representatives to develop strategies using the CLD approach ie that are relevant and centred on the needs and aspirations of the people involved in them. CLD work can effectively deliver drug education, diversionary work and support for communities.
Extensive provision
As set out in the Think Families programme and particularly the Family Intervention Projects above. Examples: Respect, Social Exclusion Unit, Families at risk report, Hidden Harm. The VCS organisation, Addaction, work with young people in schools who have substance misusing parents. Few service examples available e.g. Families First, Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 in Wales. Getting it right for every child is the Scottish Government���s approach to working with all children and young people and has an acute focus on improving outcomes for children and concentrates on the individual needs and well-being of the child, and seeks to build an appropriate response to these needs and risks. The Scottish Government currently match fund the Partnership Drugs Initiative with the Lloyds TSB Foundation for Scotland. This provides support to Third Sector organisations working directly with and supporting, children and families at risk.
Rare provision
Not a UK concept in terms of drug policies
Limited provision
Though not explicitly mentioned in policy. The programmes described under Think Family target a broad range of complex needs. As the questionnaire is asking specifically for drug prevention programmes in this context this information has not been included as the focus is on supporting and strengthening the family and safeguarding rather than drug prevention per se.
Rare provision
Not within context of drug strategy. Addressed in wider social policies e.g. Think Family. Mentioned in NI policy. The Scottish Government is currently engaging with all 32 of Scotland���s Community Planning Partnerships (CPPs) to roll out GIRFEC across the country. Our team of specialist Implementation Officers, all leaders or Senior Practitioners from agencies delivering front line services to children are playing a key role in supporting the process. Through the GIRFEC Programme Board and its subordinate Working Groups the SG works closely with representatives of an even wider range of external and internal stakeholders to drive forward the process. (Addition by GIRFEC March 2013)
Rare provision
As above points on Think Family
No provision
High
Extensive provision
In England schools are expected to work closely with local agencies and to identify young people early who may need additional support across a range of issues. The use of the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) helps to ensure that children receive a holistic assessment of their need.
Low

Turkey

no information
57
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
0
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
No information
Low
No information
Low

Norway

22.6
61
126.5
Full provision
Full provision
Full provision
Priority in the White Paper no 30 (2011-2012)"See me! A holistic drug policy". By 2012, 410 municipalities out of 429 had either a alcohol plan or a holistic plan which covers the entire alcohol and drug field.
Full provision
Interagency work has been a priority since 2010 - due to "The Coordination Reform" to handle three primary challenges in the Norwegian health services, among them prevention.Since january 2012 the new law on public health (folkehelseloven) gives the municipalities more responsibilties on the public health work, including the prevention on alcohol and drugs.
Extensive provision
Community support and availability of health- and social services have been a priority in the Action Plan 2007-2012 .
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
With reference to national youth policy in general
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Mentioned in the White Paper no 30 2011-2012.
Medium
0
Extensive provision
Offered by teachers or NGOs
Limited provision
Rare provision
Extensive provision
Limited provision
No information
Rare provision
Some schools are practising "voluntary" drug testing in cooperation with school health service, polices and children care. Several places initiated by the police itself. A rather controversial issue.
Limited provision
Given predominantly by NGOs, teachers, school nurses, police.
Limited provision
Rare provision
Not supported by the Directorate of health. The Directorate, as well as its 'agents' nationwide advise against ex-users as external lectures. Some experts, as researchers, people working in the special field on alcohol and narcotics, are used as lecturers.
Extensive provision
Fluctuating, depending on the local authorities and schools, but the theme is included in the school subjects and in the curricula.
No information
Low
No information
No information
No information
No information
Full provision
The target of preventing early school leavers is predominantly addressed in school with school-home cooperation. Intervention by The Directorate of Education: NY GIV. Link: www.udir.no read about "Ny giv" here in english http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/kd/campaign/ny-giv---new-possibilities.html?id=632025
Full provision
Pupils with social, academic problems are referred to PPT, which is a national pedagogical and psychological service that all schools in Norway can refere these pupils to.
Extensive provision
Mostly in universal prevention where the immigrants are included. When it comes to provision of interventions among immigrants we see that immigrants often are overrepresented both at social services and Child welfare services (0-18 years old and 18 -23 years old). http://www.barnevernet.no/Forebygge1/Kurs-og-videreutdanning/Opplaring-i-ICDP-programmet/
Extensive provision
The white paper about the national alcohol and drug policy from 2012 emphasises this target group. http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/hod/documents/regpubl/stmeld/2011-2012/meld-st-30-20112012.html?id=686014 The municipalities in Norway have services that cover these ethnic groups.
Extensive provision
Extensive provision
Full provision
In recent years an extra effort havs been made for this group. This is due to the action plan- Gode krefter: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/JD/Handlingsplan%20kriminalitetsforebygging.pdf http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/jd/documents-and-publications/Reports/Plans/2009/gode-krefter---kriminalitetsforebyggende.html?id=574567
Full provision
More information: http://www.bufetat.no/kontakt/
Limited provision
Extensive provision
Target of high priority: risk -families especially alcohol- and drug related problems Governmental, local bodies and NGOs works jointly for this target group.
Extensive provision
Link with examples of interventions: www.tidligintervensjon.no The regional competence centres have the professional responsibility for projects/interventions implemented in the municipality. One excample is skill raising among employees and leaders that work with disadvantage parents. www.ungsinn.no gives an overview of the most evidensbased ones.
Extensive provision
High on the agenda for the Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion (www.bld.dep.no) and Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs(www. bufdir.no). As well as for some NGOs like 'Adults for Children'. The Directorate of Health and Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs have a developed a programme in raising competence addressed to relevant services dealing with early intervention (pshycic health, alcohol and drug use and violence in close relationships).
Extensive provision
More information: http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/jd/documents-and-publications/Reports/Plans/2009/gode-krefter---kriminalitetsforebyggende.html?id=574567
Full provision
The new law on public health and new law about health and care from 2012 emphasis mental health issues. The services are to be found at national and local levels. http://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2011-06-24-29 http://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2011-06-24-30
Extensive provision
Refer to the comments about ethic groups.
Low
No information
Low

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The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EU's decentralised agencies. Read more >>

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Page last updated: Monday, 11 April 2016