Kingdom of Morocco country overview

Kingdom of Morocco country overview

About NFP: 

The National Observatory on Drugs and Addiction (ONDA) was established in 2011. Its mission is: to collect and report information on drugs to meet national and international obligations; to provide information that will enable the Government to formulate anti-drug policies and measures; and to provide information to the general public. In 2015 the Observatory published a first National report on the drug situation in Morocco.

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Last updated: Friday, June 3, 2016

Disclaimer

Disclaimer: 

This summary was prepared based on Toufiq, J., El Omari, F. and Sabir, M. (2015), ‘2014 annual report of the National Observatory on Drugs and Addiction: Morocco’, P-PG/Med (2015) 6. .The summary was prepared in cooperation with the Moroccan Observatory on Drugs and Addiction, in the framework of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) technical cooperation project ‘Towards a gradual improvement of European Neighbourhood Policy partner countries’ capacity to monitor and to meet drug-related challenges’, funded by the European Commission. The content does not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the European Union and has not been subject to the usual EMCDDA data verification procedures.

Drug use among the general population and young people

Content for prevalence: 

In 2003 a national population survey on the prevalence of mental disorders and drug addiction was carried out among sample of 6 000 people aged 15 and older. The study was conducted by the Moroccan Ministry of Health with support from the World Health Organization. It indicates that about 4.8 % of the population have used psychoactive substances at least once in their life. Cannabis was the most frequently used illicit substance in the last 12 months. The use of psychoactive substances was more prevalent among males and in rural areas.

Morocco has taken part in three rounds of the Mediterranean School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (MedSPAD), in 2003 (as a pilot study), 2006 (in Rabat and Salé), 2009 and 2013 (both nationwide studies). MedSPAD is similar to the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). It has been adapted to the context of Mediterranean countries and surveys 15- to 17-year-old schoolchildren. In Morocco, this study is conducted jointly by teams from the Ministry of Education and of Higher Education and the Arazi Psychiatric Teaching Hospital in Salé.

The sample of the latest study was 5 801. The study indicates that cannabis use is more prevalent among males than females. Thus 9.5 % of surveyed males reported having used cannabis at least once in their life, while only 2.1 % of females reported lifetime use of cannabis. The comparison between the 2009 and 2013 studies indicates an overall decline in cannabis use among 15- to 17-year-olds, with the exception of current cannabis use among males. Thus 5.8 % of males reported using cannabis in the last 30 days in 2013, while in 2009 only 5.1 % of males reported this behaviour.

Table 1. Use of cannabis among 15- to 17-year-old students (data from MedSPAD).


Males

Females

 

2009

2013

2009

2013

Lifetime use

12.9

9.5

2.5

2.1

Use in last 12 months

8.5

6.4

1.3

0.7

Use in last 30 days

5.1

5.8

0.6

0.6

The MedSPAD survey confirms that tobacco is the most widely used psychoactive substance among school-aged children. Although the use of psychoactive substances among 15- to 17-year-olds is more prevalent among males in general, the prevalence of benzodiazepines misuse is mainly confined to females.

Prevention

Content for prevention: 

The guiding principles for Morocco’s prevention policy are to prevent or at least delay the first use of psychotropic substances and prevent or reduce abuse of those substances. Prevention is a major component of the National Strategy Against Addiction 2012–16, which addresses addiction caused by all psychoactive substances. The strategy calls for: the development of prevention and healthy lifestyle promotion programmes based on international best practices; the enhancement of early detection and diagnosis of addictive disorders; the promotion of multi-sectorial cooperation, and cooperation with voluntary associations (non-governmental organisations); and ensuring monitoring evaluation and research into prevention.

The Ministry of Health, Ministry of National Education and Professional Training, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and Freedom, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Habous and Islamic Affairs, Ministry of Solidarity, Women, Family and Social Development, and Ministry of Employment and Social Affairs are involved in defining the prevention policy, while at the grassroots level they are supported by a number of voluntary associations that further organise and implement the activities.

The Ministry of Health has been the key player since 2008 in terms of planning the prevention policy via various strategic documents. It promotes targeted actions for young people, adults and vulnerable groups, with a significant focus on the implementation of a social communication strategy. There is no system in place to monitor prevention activities in Morocco; however, it is believed that universal prevention activities predominate, and that they mainly focus on information provision, the development of psychosocial skills and enhancing parents’ involvement in prevention activities.

Schools remain a key location in preventing addictive behaviour among children, and prevention activities in schools are integrated within the wider context of health education. So-called ‘citizenship clubs’, such as the ‘health club’, ‘communication club’, ‘theatre club’ and other leisure-focused clubs have been established in schools and provide children with information about the harmful effects of drugs. Teacher-led counselling units have been established in some schools. Many schools cooperate with voluntary associations in the implementation of various prevention campaigns. In 2011 the Organisation for the Prevention of Addiction, created in 1994, piloted Unplugged, an internationally recognised universal school-based prevention programme, in 123 Moroccan schools. The project was implemented in partnership with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Moroccan Ministry of Health.

The Moroccan Society Against Tobacco and Drugs mainly implements awareness-raising events and campaigns on tobacco and drugs. The Moroccan Organisation to Foster Listening and Dialogue, created in 2005, also implements awareness-raising and training activities on psychoactive substances and communicable diseases, and encourages alternative leisure activities for schoolchildren.

There are several other specialised prevention centres operating in the country that, similar to the voluntary associations, mainly implement awareness-raising activities and capacity development.

Problem drug use

Content for problem drug use: 

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

No nationwide studies on the size of high-risk groups have been conducted so far in Morocco.

Several studies have been carried out to assess high-risk drug use practices in Morocco. A rapid evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks among injecting drug users in 2005–06 recruited a sample of 347 male and 77 female drug users from streets, prisons and hospitals in Tangier, Tetouan, Casablanca and Rabat-Salé. This study confirmed that about three-quarters of drug users have injected drugs at least once in their life, with heroin and cocaine being the most frequently injected substances. The study also indicated rather high prevalence of risky injecting practices and sexual behaviour among drug users. While the prevalence of injecting was lower among female drug users, the study confirmed that females who inject drugs are doing it in more risky way than males, and that female drug users have less access to treatment services. The existing data from the second component of this study, performed in 2008, indicate that heroin is the most frequently used injectable substance among drug users in Nador and Al Hoceima.

Treatment demand

Content for treatment demand: 

Morocco is a pioneering country in its provision of abstinence-based and pharmacological treatment to drug users in the Maghreb region; however, a national data collection on treatment clients has not yet been established. Nevertheless, two existing inpatient and seven outpatient units have their own registration systems in place.

The Ministry of Health has recently launched various projects to create an integrated data collection system that would facilitate data gathering and reporting for national and international purposes. The treatment demand indicator protocol is being considered for adaptation and implementation in Morocco. More details about treatment in Morocco are available in the section ‘Treatment responses’.

Drug-related infectious diseases

Content for drug-related infectious diseases: 

Morocco is considered a low prevalence country for HIV, with concentrated epidemics among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users and migrants. It is estimated that in 2009 about 26 000 people were living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Morocco. It is estimated that about 6.5 % of the total number of registered new HIV infections in the country are linked to injecting drug use (through drug injecting or having sexual partners who inject).

Injecting drug use and heroin use are concentrated in the northern provinces on the Mediterranean coast. The proximity of this region to south European countries and the high mobility of drug users between Morocco and these countries, where HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence has been fairly high among injectors, is one specific societal factor increasing the vulnerability of Moroccan drug users to drug-related infections. Pockets of injecting drug use have also been identified in Casablanca (the country’s largest city and a sea port on the Atlantic coast) and Berkane (in the east of the country).

In the north of Morocco the cities of Tangier, Tetouan, Nador and Al Hoceima have been most affected by injecting drug use, although the situation with spread of drug-related infectious diseases seems to be rather variable among them.

The first study of HIV risks among people who inject drugs was carried out in 2006 on a sample of 424 injecting drug users. Almost half of respondent re-used needles. The prevalence of self-reported HIV was 7 %, and for HCV it was 18 %. A follow-up to the study was conducted in 2008, along with the first seroprevalence study using the snowball sampling technique in Nador and Al Hoceima. It revealed that 38 % of tested drug users were HIV positive in Nador, while none were HIV positive in Al Hoceima. Around 89 % of tested drug users were HCV positive in Nador, and 9 % in Al Hoceima. The same study revealed that about three-quarters of drug users shared their injecting equipment with others. In 2009 the respondent-driven sampling study among injecting drug users in Tangier revealed HIV prevalence rates at 0.4 % and HCV prevalence rates at 41 %. A similar study in Nador in 2011 indicated HIV prevalence rates at 22 % and HCV prevalence at 73 % among sampled injecting drug users. The behavioural survey data indicated that about one-third of people who inject drugs in Tangier shared at least one piece of injecting equipment, while in Nador about 36 % shared needles, 45 % shared water for preparation, 42 % shared water for rinsing syringes, 40 % shared spoons and 31 % shared cotton filters with others. The studies also indicated that unprotected and high-risk sex, misconceptions about the transmission of HCV, the mobility of drug users and a lack of access to sterile injecting equipment from pharmacies fuel the spread of HIV and HCV among drug users and to their sexual partners.

Drug-induced deaths and mortality

Content for drug-induced deaths: 

At present there is no national register containing data on drug-related mortality in Morocco.

Treatment responses

Content for treatment responses: 

Although Morocco is a pioneering country in the provision of abstinence-based and pharmacological treatments to drug users in the Maghreb region, access to addiction care is hampered by a lack of sufficient human resources and facilities. However, there are plans to expand the care services in coming years, and also to create special and more integrated services with a focus on under-served groups, such as female drug users and young people who use drugs.

Detoxification, aftercare and rehabilitation are provided through specialised addiction centres. Local medico-psychological centres provide treatment on an outpatient basis (Rabat, Tangier, Tetouan, Oujda, Nador and Marrakech), while regional addiction centres (Rabat-Salé, Casablanca and Fès) provide hospital-based residential drug treatment. In the areas where there is no specialised care, detoxification treatment and follow-up care is provided by general hospitals and psychiatric departments. However, the Ministry of Health aims to set up 14 addiction treatment units by 2020 in other regions of the country. Furthermore, the Ministry aims to improve the medical care of drug users, strengthen the treatment network, create specialist mobile units in the university hospitals and promote youth health services offering psychiatric consultations in five cities. The National Strategy Against Addiction 2012–16 prescribes the opening of specialised addiction hospital units in four cities.

There are no unified standards for drug treatment in Morocco and each treatment centre provides its own programmes, which are variable in length and content. However, these programmes usually have a period within which withdrawal is managed, and this is followed by psychosocial care and occupational therapy. The National Centre for Addiction Treatment, Prevention and Research in Rabat-Salé is accessible to all Moroccans regardless of their geographic origins, and has 16 inpatient beds for males and six for females. A client is admitted to its care after comprehensive evaluation by a team of experts. The duration of inpatient treatment varies between one and three months. Inpatient treatment includes the management of withdrawal symptoms and individualised therapy based on substances of use, symptoms and needs. Inpatient care is followed by a second evaluation, after which the client is usually referred to psychosocial care, which includes therapy to prevent relapses and occupational therapy. Another regional addiction centre is the Department on Substance Dependence at Ibn Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca, which mainly provides outpatient care, while inpatient care is also possible (10 beds in total). The duration of inpatient treatment varies between one and three months, during which clients have access to occupational therapy and various leisure activities. Any contacts with family or friends are discouraged during the treatment period.

Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is part of the National Risk Reduction Programme in Morocco. It was first introduced in June 2010 as a trial in Tangier, Rabat-Salé and Casablanca. The programme started with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), as the medication was placed on the Ministry of Health list of essential medicines in 2009. A special recommendation drafted by the Ministry of Health on the practical implementation of OST allowed the ‘high safety threshold’ programme to be launched. The programme envisaged daily on-site visits and supervised intake of methadone. More flexible dispensation procedures were only allowed for stabilised patients, and those in well-established programmes. Following an evaluation of the trial in 2011, the Government extended the MMT programme to another seven locations (Oujda, Rabat, Marrakesh, Tetouan, Nador, Al Hoceima and Agadir). By the end of 2014 about 300 clients were receiving MMT in Tangier, 42 in Casablanca and 26 in Rabat-Salé. There are plans to increase the provision of services to 2 000 clients by 2016. His Majesty King Mohammed VI inaugurated the first MMT programme in prison in 2011, and initially MMT provision was restricted to those who were receiving it prior to their imprisonment. Currently, MMT programmes are available through specialised addiction centres, while there are plans to expand the network of specialists and clinics that can prescribe and administer MMT.

Harm reduction responses

Content for harm reduction responses: 

The concept of harm reduction was first integrated in the National Strategy Against Drug Addiction 2006–10, which called for the provision of prevention services targeting active drug users without the imposition of drug use cessation. This objective was further reflected in the first Action Plan on Harm Reduction 2008–11. The National Strategic Plan for Combating AIDS 2012–16 calls for the strengthening and expansion of harm reduction measures to people who inject drugs, including the provision of OST to the public in addition to those in prison settings. The existing National Action Plan for Reducing HIV Risks Among Injecting Drug Users 2012–16 aims to ensure access to high-quality combined prevention measures, OST treatment and combined medical and psychosocial treatments services, and to optimise coordination and management of risk reduction at the national and local levels.

The first harm reduction programme incorporating needle and syringe exchange was established in Tangier in 2008 by the Support Association for the Hasnouna Medico-Psychological Center. The services were provided in a fixed-location centre and via a mobile unit. Afterwards, the programme was expanded to Teouan in 2009 (a mobile unit), Nador in 2010 (a mobile unit), Oujda and El Hoceima. Financial support for follow-up programmes was received from Coalition Plus and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). The Mohammed V Foundation for Solidarity, in cooperation with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Interior, has established seven harm reduction centres across the country. A harm reduction programme without a needle and syringe exchange component has also been implemented in Rabat, Marrakech, and Casablanca.

The range of services provided by harm reduction facilities includes distribution of injection kits and collection of used needles and syringes, distribution of condoms, awareness raising and education, and social support.

The evaluation of the first Action Plan on Harm Reduction 2008–11 indicated significant achievements in the development of services for the people who inject drugs. It was suggested that the experience of Morocco might serve as a model for other countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. A resource and training centre on drug-related harm reduction was set up in 2013 with the aim of building further national capacity as well as the capacity of specialists from the Maghreb region and other French-speaking African countries.

It is estimated that over the period 2008–11 a total of 3 300 people who inject drugs were reached by the prevention activities and about 278 000 needles were distributed.

Drug markets and drug-law offences

Content for Drug markets and drug-law offences: 

Cannabis cultivation and production in Morocco have developed over the last decade, despite it being illegal. Morocco remains one of the main cannabis-producing countries in the world, with Europe being the most important market for herbal cannabis and cannabis resin. These are produced mainly in the north of the country, between the Rif Mountains and the Mediterranean coast.

The latest data indicate some shift in production sites due to the Government’s efforts to stop the production, and it is believed that Al Hoceima and its surrounding provinces have become the most significant cultivation sites. The Government’s efforts in tackling the illegal cultivation, production and trafficking of cannabis have focused on the development of specialised units, strengthening the existing control measures and modernising the infrastructure along the country’s sea, land and air border. These efforts have led to a significant reduction in cannabis growing areas between 2003 and 2010. It is estimated that in 2013 the area covered by cannabis crops has been reduced to 47 000 hectares (down from 134 000 hectares in 2003). However, recent research (1) indicates that, meanwhile, cannabis production in Morocco has gone through significant transformation, which, as a result, has enabled the production of cannabis plants with higher resin yields and THC content. Since 2009 a government programme for alternative development with a total budget of EUR 85 million has been implemented in Morocco’s northern provinces, which has to date supported 74 rural communities to develop alternative crop programmes.

Spain is the main gateway for Moroccan cannabis to the European market, by fast boats, fishing vessels and private yachts. Some more sophisticated means of trafficking, such as helicopters, are also used. Traffickers continue to smuggle drugs through the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and through the port of Tangiers. Some of the cannabis produced in Morocco is directly shipped to the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, mainly by cargo ships. In recent years Morocco and its well-established cannabis trafficking routes have been used to smuggle cocaine from Latin America to Europe, mainly by ‘drug mules’. However, there is some indication that some of the cocaine smuggled from Latin America remains in the country and that the local market for it is growing.

In 2008–09 Morocco acceded to the Co-ordination Centre for Anti-Drug Enforcement in the Western Mediterranean basin (CECLAD-M), and it holds observers status in the Maritime Analysis Operational Centre (MAOC-N).

Regarding seizures, cannabis is the main drug seized in Morocco; however, since 2009 the Government has reported a decrease in the amount seized. In 2009 a total of 223 tons of kif (2) was seized, and in the same year 188 tons of cannabis resin was seized, while in the following years the amount of kif and resin seized has decreased considerably. However, in 2013 two large seizures of more than 2 000 kg of cannabis resin were made in the north of the country.

Table 2. Quantity of drugs seized by Customs and the Indirect Taxation Authority in 2012 and 2013 (kg).

 

2012

2013

Cannabis resin

41 597

32 104

Cannabis leaves (kif)

12 341

20 703

Cocaine

25

14

Heroin

7

3

Drugs are also seized by the police, mainly in operations against drug use and possession, and when tackling drug trafficking in the proximity of educational settings. These amounts have remained relatively small.

According to the National report, in 2013 there were 49 365 drug-law offences (for all, licit and illicit substances). In 2013 a total of 61 166 persons were prosecuted for drug-related crimes. The vast majority of the crimes and persons prosecuted were related to cannabis resin and kif. According to the figures provided by Moroccan authorities for 2011, approximately 25 % of the prison population had been charged with drug-related offences ranging from personal use to trafficking as part of an organised gang.

(1) Chouvya, P.A. and Afsahi, K. (2014), ‘Hashish revival in Morocco’, International Journal of Drug Policy, 25: 416–423.

(2) Kif are the resin glands (or trichomes) of cannabis that may accumulate in containers or be sifted from loose dry cannabis flower with a mesh screen or sieve.

National drug laws

Content for National drug laws: 

Morocco is a signatory to the United Nations Conventions on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1961, 1971 and 1988) and to the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime (2000). Moroccan law refers to the concept of ‘poisonous substances’, drawing on the classification contained in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1971 Vienna Convention. Three categories of substances are recognised: toxic substances (Table A), narcotic substances (Table B) and dangerous substances (Table C). The Order of the Minister of Public Health lists all licit and illicit drugs, and was last updated in 1997.

When Morocco gained independence from France in 1954 it inherited the anti-drug legislation that had been set up during the French protectorate, including the Dahir prohibiting kif hemp. The legislation remained unchanged for almost twenty years. The Criminal Code of Morocco, adopted in 1962, was the first post-independence legislation. It contains a number of important principles, including the judicial placement in a treatment facility of perpetuators who committed an offence in a state of intoxication from alcohol and/or drugs (Article 80), confiscation of assets (Article 89) and punishment for possession (Article 571).

The main legislative instrument is the Dahir law on the suppression of drug addiction (no. 1-73-282 of 21 May 1974). The law identifies three categories of offences: use, incitement and trafficking. Possession and the use of substances or plants classified as narcotics, and the fact of facilitating the use of these substances or plants by any means, are punished. Drug use remains a criminal offence in Morocco. The Criminal Code of Morocco establishes the punishment for drug-related offences with up to 30 years’ imprisonment and a fine of up to EUR 60 000. However, on average, drug traffickers are sentenced to imprisonment of between 8 and 10 years. Article 8 of the Law on the Suppression of Drug Addiction sets out the possibility for criminal proceedings to be cancelled in cases where an offender submits to drug treatment. In practice, however, this provision in Article 8 is rarely applied.

One of the predominant concerns surrounding the fight against drug production and trafficking in Morocco is to intercept the funds generated by these illegal activities. Therefore, a series of anti-money laundering legislative initiatives are in force to monitor suspicious financial transactions, which may be linked to illegal activities, including drug trafficking. Moreover, the country is continuously developing its anti-money laundering and anti-corruption legislative institutional framework, working closely with the Council of Europe, the Financial Action Task Force and Middle East and North Africa Financial Action task force on these matters.

National drug strategy

Content for National drug strategy: 

The National Strategy Against Psychoactive Substances, in place since 2005, is geared towards supply reduction, suppressing both trafficking and demand, and putting in place measures to promote alternative development. The strategy emphasises police operations, the eradication of cannabis cultivation in the country’s northern province, the development of programmes for alternative crops and demand reduction.

The first National Action Plan Against Addiction was adopted in 2007 and covered 2008–12. The current National Strategy Against Addiction 2012–16 aims to raise awareness about the harmful effects of psychoactive substances among young people, improve the quality of care and access to care for drug users, build the capacity of treatment providers, specialists and professionals, encourage broad public–private partnerships in developing new rehabilitation facilities and reduce the risks associated with drug use. It has four strategic objectives:

  • reduction of demand;
  • the treatment of persons suffering from addiction by developing treatment facilities and training human resources;
  • reducing the risks associated with injecting drug use;
  • monitoring and evaluating the National Strategy Against Addiction 2012–16.

The third objective has been translated into the National Action Plan for Harm Reduction 2012–16.

The monitoring and evaluation of the existing action plan is entrusted to the National Programme Monitoring Committee, the National Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the National Observatory on Drugs and Addiction.

Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

Content for Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs: 

The National Commission on Narcotic Drugs was set up by the Dahir of 3 October 1977 (amended by no. 1993/52). It is composed of representatives from various ministerial departments responsible mainly for the medical and social fields and law enforcement. The main mission of the commission is to control licit psychoactive substances, supress the cultivation of and trade and trafficking in illicit drugs, and to elaborate the drug use prevention policy in the country.

The Anti-Drugs Coordination Unit was set up in 1996 and aims to improve coordination among different departments responsible for law enforcement and a national Narcotics Commission.

Key national figures and statistics

Content for Key national figures and statistics: 

 

Year

Morocco

Source

 
 
 

Population (1)

2013

32 649 130

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

Population by age group

 

 

 

 

15–24

2013

18 %

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

25–54

2013

41.7 %

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

55–64

2013

7 %

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

Gross domestic product (2) (per inhabitant)

2012

EUR 3 970

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

Unemployment rate (3)

2012

9 %

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

Unemployment rate, youth aged 15–24

2011

19.5 %

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

Proportion below poverty level

2007

15 %

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

Number of prisoners (per 100 000 of population) (4

2013

220

Sabir, M. and Toufiq, J. (2014), ‘Drug situation and policy: Morocco’

 

(1) As of 1 January 2013.

(2) Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation.

(3) Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise those aged 15–74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

(4) The situation in penal institutions on 1 January 2013.

Additional sources of national information

Content for Additional sources: 

Contact information for our focal point

Address and contact: 

Director of the National Drug Observatory:

Jallal Toufiq

National Observatory on Drugs an Addiction

University Psychiatric Hospial Arazi

Rue Ibn Rochd 11010 Salé Morocco

Phone: +212 (0) 537 8626 84/99

Email: info[a]onda-drogues.com

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