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Luxembourg country overview — a summary of the national drug situation

 

 

Luxembourg country overview
A summary of the national drug situation

Map of Luxembourg

Our partner in Luxembourg

The headquarters of the national focal point in Luxembourg are located within the Public Health Research Centre (CRP-Santé). As a scientific research institute in the field of public health, CRP Santé is a common welfare institution, which is partly financed by the National Administration. 

Direction de la Santé, Point Focal OEDT

Allée Marconi
Villa Louvigny
L-2120 Luxembourg
Tel. +352 4785625

Head of focal point: Mr Alain Origer

Our partner in Luxembourg

Direction de la Santé, Point Focal OEDT

Allée Marconi
Villa Louvigny
L-2120 Luxembourg
Tel. +352 4785625
Fax +352 467965

Head of focal point: Mr Alain Origer

The headquarters of the national focal point in Luxembourg are located within the Public Health Research Centre (CRP-Santé). As a scientific research institute in the field of public health, CRP Santé is a common welfare institution, which is partly financed by the National Administration. A series of synergies between the focal point and specialised departments of the CRP-Santé allow for effective experience sharing and management of technical, logistical and administrative activities.

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Drug use among the general population and young people

To date, no representative large-scale general population survey on the use of psychoactive substances has been conducted in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Questions on the use of illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances have been included in the European Health Interview Survey launched in 2013 and the results are expected by 2015.

Comparable data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) national school surveys conducted in Luxembourg show a decrease in the prevalence of any illicit drug use from 1999 to 2010. In-depth analysis shows an overall decline in prevalence between 1999 and 2006 and some stabilisation subsequently. All common illicit drugs have followed declining prevalence trends with the notable exception of cocaine, which has shown an increase, particularly in those aged 15–16. Opiates use among school-aged children has been consistently low over the last decade.

Even though cannabis remains the most-used illicit drug by young people aged 12–18, a clear decline in lifetime prevalence of its use has been observed since the start of this century. Recent and current cannabis use prevalence rates declined remarkably between 1999 and 2006, and appear to have stabilised since then. Results of the 2009–10 survey indicated a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use of 22 % for males aged 15–16 and 15 % for females of the same age, which showed a further decline when compared to the 2005–06 study (25 % males and 21 % females). The latest HBSC study also found that a quarter of students aged 15–16 who had ever tried cannabis had done so three or more times within the past 12 months. Males reported more frequent heavy use, for example 40 or more episodes within the past 12 months, than did females of the same age group.

Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information  

High-risk drug use

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use (IDU) or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

A 2009 study estimated that there were around 1 907 injecting drug users in Luxembourg (range: 1 524–2 301), or 5.68 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 4.54–6.9).

The same study yielded an estimate of problem drug users of 6.2 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 4.6–7.83), which is lower than previous estimates for 1999, 2000, 2003 and 2007.

The 2007 study indicated that there were around 1 900 problem heroin users in Luxembourg (range: 1 608–2 463), or 5.9 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 5.00–7.60).

Look for High risk drug-use in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Treatment demand

Drug treatment demand data are reported by the Réseau Luxembourgeois d’Information sur les Stupéfiants (RELIS), a multi-sectoral drug monitoring system covering both public and private partners. The data on treatment demand for 2013 were reported from six outpatient, one inpatient, one low threshold and four hospital units, and also from treatment units in two prisons. In 2013 a total of 289 clients entered treatment, 19 of whom were new clients entering treatment for the first time.

In 2013, among all clients entering treatment, opioids, largely heroin, were the main substance used, at 50 %, followed by cannabis at 31 % and cocaine at 17 %. In recent years an increase in cannabis treatment demands has been reported. Slightly less than half of all heroin users entering treatment injected their primary illicit drug. In terms of gender distribution, 80 % of all clients were male and 20 % were female.

Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Drug-related infectious diseases

Data on drug-related infectious diseases are collected at the national level through the National Retrovirology Laboratory of CRP-Sante. Between 1984 and 2013 a total of 1 250 people were registered with HIV, 160 of whom were people who inject drugs (PWID) (12.8 % of the total). Drug injection was the third most prevalent route of HIV transmission after homo/bisexual and heterosexual transmission. The proportion of injecting drug use related HIV cases decreased significantly over the period 1998–2011, but has been showing an increasing trend from 2012 onwards.

Data on HIV prevalence rates among drug users are available through the multi-sector national network RELIS and are based on self-reports. In 2013 the prevalence rate of HIV infections based on self-reports was 1.2 % (1.0 % in 2012; 1.8 % in 2011; 2.4 % in 2010) among those with injecting drug use experience and in contact with drug treatment centres, low-threshold services, hospitals, drug units at prisons or the drug unit of the judicial police.

The most recent study (2007) on the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) showed a serology-based prevalence rate among people who inject drugs in 2005 of 71.4 % for HCV, 21.6 % for HBV and 2.9 % for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (1).

(1) A. Origer, J.-C. Schmit (2012), ‘Prevalence of hepatitis B and C and HIV infections among problem drug users in Luxembourg: self-report versus serological evidence’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 66, pp. 64–8. doi:10.1136/jech.2009.101378.

Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Drug-induced deaths and mortality among drug users

In Luxembourg, the Special Registry for drug-induced deaths is run by the Specialised Drug Department of the Judicial Police Service (SPJ), which maintains a register of all cases of direct overdose caused by illicit drug use and documented by forensic evidence. Data extraction and reporting from this register is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.

The General Mortality Registry is located in the Statistical Department of the Directorate of Health, which indexes all deaths according to ICD-10 that have occurred in Luxembourg, by means of death certificates provided by general practitioners.

The number of fatal overdoses registered by the Special Registry showed an increasing trend from 1997 (nine cases) to 2000 (26 cases), decreasing to an almost historic low level of eight cases in 2005. The trend then increased again, with 19 confirmed cases in 2006 and 27 in 2007. In 2013 eleven confirmed cases were reported, which indicates an overall and persistent decline since early 2000. With regard to distribution by sex, seven of the cases were male. The mean age of the victims was 36.9 years. Toxicological evidence confirmed the presence of opioids (heroin or methadone) in all registered deaths. 

The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (15–64) was 29.7 deaths per million in 2012, higher than the European average of 17.2 deaths per million.

Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Treatment responses

Specialised drug treatment infrastructure in Luxembourg relies on governmental support and control. Treatment is decentralised and is most commonly provided by state-accredited NGOs. Most of these specialised agencies have signed an agreement with the Ministry of Health that guarantees their annual funding. NGOs involved in drug treatment fall under the obligations of the so-called ASFT law (8/09/98) and the subsequent Grand-ducal Decree of 10 December 1998, both of which regulate the relationship (duties and rights) between the state on one side, and NGOs or organisations providing psycho-medical-social and therapeutic care on the other side.

The overall management of these agencies is ensured by a ‘coordination platform’ that includes three members of the institution, and at least one representative from the competent ministry. All major decisions must be approved by the coordination platform. All institutions work in close collaboration and could be viewed as an interdependent therapeutic chain, and a number of collaboration agreements between agencies were signed in 2008 and 2009 to ensure thorough care and rational use of available resources. With the exception of detoxification departments, all treatment units or agencies accept any drug-using patient, irrespective of the type of substances that are involved. Detoxification treatment is provided by five different hospitals via their respective psychiatric units and is funded by health insurance.

There are six specialist outpatient treatment facilities, one residential therapeutic community and one specialist psycho-medical inpatient transition unit. While outpatient treatment is provided free of charge, inpatient treatment is covered by health insurance. The programme within the residential therapeutic community is divided into three progressive phases, and the duration varies from three months up to one year. The programme offers special treatment opportunities to pregnant women, drug-using couples and mothers with children. A non-specialist residential centre admitting young problem drug users opened in 2007 in the north of Luxembourg. A dedicated psychosocial and medical care programme is operational in the national prison (Programme Tox).

Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is mainly delivered through office-based medical doctors. In addition, a multidisciplinary OST programme is provided by the Jugend-an Drogenhëllef Foundation, which mainly provides liquid oral methadone. In 2002 the Grand-ducal Decree on substitution programmes of 30 January 2002 was approved; this regulates OST in general by means of substitution treatment licences granted to specialist medical doctors and specialist agencies. The referred legal framework lists medicines for substitution, including methadone, buprenorphine, morphine-based medications and heroin within the framework of a pilot project, as well as substitution treatment modalities. With regard to the cost of treatment, medical interventions and counselling are covered by health insurance, while the state covers pharmaceutical costs and pharmacy fees. In 2013 there were 1 254 clients in OST, with 95 % of the clients receiving methadone maintenance treatment and the rest buprenorphine-based treatment.

See the Treatment profile for Luxembourg for additional information.  

Harm reduction responses

A legal framework for a series of harm reduction measures, such as needle and syringe exchange and supervised injection rooms, was established in 2001 when the basic drug law of 1973 was amended. However, harm reduction interventions had already been initiated and developed prior to the new legal framework. The law amendment in 2001 allowed existing interventions to be maintained and further developed, and new services such as drug consumption rooms and medically assisted heroin distribution to be implemented. The first and until now only injection room at the national level opened in July 2005 and has been integrated into the low-threshold emergency centre for drug users. Up to 2013 a total of 1 400 clients had signed the facility’s mandatory user contract, and more than 40 000 injections were supervised by trained staff during the year. In 2012 the facility opened a room where drugs can be inhaled under supervision (blow room). A second supervised drug consumption room is planned in the southern part of the country for 2016/17. The set-up of a heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) programme is planned in the governmental programme and it is expected that HAT will be introduced as a complementary treatment option in 2015/16.

The National HIV/AIDS Action Plan for 2011–15 has been launched by the Ministry of Health. Its aims include the prevention of infectious diseases and harm reduction in drug-using populations. The elaboration of this plan has taken into consideration the recommendations of the external evaluation of the previous plan.

The national needle and syringe exchange programme in Luxembourg is decentralised and consists of five fixed sites, one of which was opened in 2014, drug counselling centres, drop-in centres for sex workers and at-risk populations, low-threshold services and four vending machines situated in the towns most affected by injecting drug use. Needle and syringe exchange is also provided at two prison-based sites. Apart from needles and syringes, testing for blood-borne infectious disease, vaccinations and counselling on safe use practices are also provided. In 2012 a mobile medical care unit was launched as additional service, facilitating the provision of primary medical care at low-threshold agencies. Approximately one-third of RELIS-indexed PWID obtain clean syringes mainly from pharmacies, and this proportion is estimated to have been stable in recent years.

The number of sterile syringes distributed in the framework of the national needle exchange programme has constantly increased since it was first implemented in 1993, when 76 000 syringes were distributed, reaching a peak in 2005 when some 435 000 syringes were given out. Syringe demand has significantly decreased in more recent years, and numbers fell to 192 000 in 2013.

See the Harm reduction overview for Luxembourg for additional information.  

Drug markets and drug-law offences

Data on seizures and drug-law offences are reported to the national focal point by the Specialised Drug Department of the Judicial Police Service (SPJ). The number of police records for presumed offences against the modified 1973 drug law showed a stable trend between 1996 and 1998, a significant increase between 1998 and 2003 (825 to 1 660), and remained relatively stable between 2004–08. In 2009 and 2010 the number increased to 2 546, but it then shown a declining trend, falling to 1 802 in 2012, while 2013 saw an increase to 2 069 reported drug-law offences.

The number of drug-law offenders (prévenus) declined from 1 368 in 1996 to 1 170 in 1998, peaked in 2003, but showed a significant decline from 2003 until 2008. The number increased to 2 530 in 2010, fell to 1 782 in 2012, and was 2 066 in 2013. The majority of drug-law offences relate to cannabis, followed by heroin and cocaine.

The majority of illicit substances consumed in Luxembourg originate from the Netherlands (cannabis production and transit), Belgium (synthetic drugs) and Morocco (cannabis). The drug provision sources and distribution networks are assumed to be highly organised in Luxembourg, and have managed to significantly increase the availability of illicit substances at the national level.

A longitudinal data analysis indicated a general decreasing tendency of heroin, cocaine and cannabis seizures and amounts of respective substances seized until 2002. However, since 2002 there have been great variations in the number of seizures and amount seized. Between 2003–10 the number of herbal cannabis seizures increased, followed by a slight decrease in 2011–12, while in 2012 the quantity of seized herbal cannabis was 30 kg, the third highest recorded figure. In 2013, however, the amounts seized fell again to 10.69 kg. Although the number of cannabis resin seizures in 2012–13 was significantly less than in the previous period, the amount of substance seized increased sevenfold in 2013 when compared to 2012 (8.37 kg and 1.31 kg respectively). The number of heroin seizures declined between 1999–2004, subsequently increasing and then stabilising at 234–254 seizures between 2005–07, after which the number increased in 2009–10 (289 and 292 seizures respectively) and fell to 127 in 2013. This pattern was not repeated in the amount seized, as in 2009–10 the amount seized declined, while a record amount of 24 kg of heroin was seized in 2011. In 2012–13 the total amount of seized heroin was 2.65 kg and 3.81 kg respectively. In 2013 the number of cocaine seizures fell, and less than 1 kg of substance was seized. Crack (cocaine base) seizures have not been reported to date by the national authorities, although field agencies have reported its appearance on the national drugs market. The first national seizures of ecstasy-type substances (MDMA, MDA, etc.) were recorded in 1994. A record number of 9 478 ecstasy tablets were seized in 2009, falling to only 13 tablets seized in 2013. 

Look for Drug law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data.  

National drug laws

In 2001 the national drug law was amended to decriminalise cannabis use and personal possession. It became an illegal activity that would result in a fine, and prison sentences would only be given if there were aggravating circumstances (e.g. use in schools or in the presence of minors). Users of other illicit substances risk between eight days and six months of imprisonment and/or a fine. Prosecution may be halted or penalties reduced in cases where a drug user has taken steps to seek specialised help. 

The law does not specify a difference between small-scale and large-scale drug deals or distribution. The respective sentences currently range from 1–5 years’ imprisonment and/or a fine, while imprisonment of 5–10 years is applied if the distributed drug has caused severe damage to health (e.g. an incurable disease). If the drugs had fatal consequences for the user, the punishment may increase to 15–20 years.

Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information.  

National drug strategy

Luxembourg’s National Strategy and Action Plan on Drugs and Drug Addiction 2010–14 is comprehensive and its goal is to ensure a high level of health protection, public security and social cohesion. It focuses on both illicit and licit drugs, although it refers to separate thematic action plans (alcohol, tobacco, psychotropic medication, other addictions, etc.). The illicit drugs action plan covers two pillars: supply and demand reduction; and four transversal axes: risk, nuisance and harm reduction; information and evaluation; international cooperation and research; and horizontal coordination mechanisms. It includes 60 separate actions divided into seven fields: primary prevention; treatment and care; socio-professional reintegration; reduction of risks and damages; research/evaluation and information; supply reduction; and coordination and international relations.

The new strategy builds on the outcome of the external evaluation of the previous action plan and takes into consideration the EU Drugs Strategy 2005–12 and its Action Plan 2009–12. It is results-oriented and places a special focus on primary prevention, social reintegration, diversification and access to treatment, and quality management. There are 60 separate actions listed in the strategy and these are associated to those responsible for implementing them, financial requirements, defined timeframes and performance indicators. A criteria matrix was used to define the specific actions, projects or programmes that are set out.

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Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

At the national level, coordination among different ministries involved in the drugs area takes place through the Inter-ministerial Commission on Drugs (ICD). The Commission has been chaired since 2006 by the National Drug Coordinator, who is appointed by the Minister of Health. It is composed of senior delegates from the main governmental departments, the Ministry of Health and invited experts and constitutes the top advisory level with respect to coordination and orientation of drug actions. Both the ICD and the Ministry of Health are responsible for the implementation of national drugs strategies and action plans, supervising field activities and guaranteeing an effective consultation process with other ministries. While the National Drug Coordinator is responsible for coordination in the area of demand reduction, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are, respectively, responsible for supply reduction and international cooperation.

Public expenditure

In 2009 the National Drug Coordinator set the 2010–14 Action Plan priorities, associating concrete actions and planned budgets. Additionally, the government approves annually several drug-related budget lines. Estimates of total expenditures spent are also available; these are based on a well-defined methodology established in 2002 (1,2). Over the past 10 years the concepts of implementation follow-up and evaluation have grown in importance in this field. Therefore, the National Strategy and Action Plan on Drugs and Drug Addiction 2010–14 are currently under evaluation.

In 2009 total public expenditure (3) was estimated at 0.1 % of gross domestic product (GDP), with unlabelled expenditure representing 65 % of the total. Most expenditure was spent on public order and safety (57 %) and health (41 %). The remaining budget financed, among other items, housing, general public services and education.

Trend analysis shows that between 2005 and 2009 drug-related public expenditure remained stable, ranging between 0.09 % and 0.11 % of GDP. Partial data from 2010 and 2011 suggest that expenditure is now increasing. However, partial data from 2012 for treatment seem to suggest that this growth may have come to a halt.

Table 1: Total drug-related expenditure, 2009
  Labelled expenditure (thousand EUR) Unlabelled expenditure (thousand EUR) Total (thousand EUR) % of total
a) According to the United Nations Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) Eurostat data sources: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/ (general) and http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=4
(b) EMCDDA estimations.
Source: National Annual Report of Luxembourg (2010).
COFOG classification (a)        
Public order and safety 4 839 17 057 21 896 56.97
Health 7 969 7 750 15 719 40.89
Housing 627 0 627 1.63
General public services 122 59 181 0.47
Recreation, culture and religion 0 2 2 0.01
Education 0 13 13 0.03
Total 13 557 (b) 24 881 (b) 38 438 100.00
% of the total 35.27 % 64.73 % 100 %  
% of GDP 0.1 %      
  • (1) Origer, A. (2002), Le coût économique direct de la politique et des interventions publiques en matière d’usage illicite de drogues au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, National focal point, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
  • (2) Origer, A. (2010), ‘Update of direct economic costs of national drug policies in 2009’, National report on the state of the drugs problem in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Point focal OEDT Luxembourg – CRP-Santé, Luxembourg.
  • (3) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.

Drug-related research

The current national drug action plan explicitly refers to research as an integrated part of the transversal axes of demand and supply reduction. Research domains include a wide variety of areas, and the national focal point is the national reference centre for drug-related research. It also manages most of the available funds in this area, together with the National Research Fund and the National Fund Against Certain Forms of Criminality. Other relevant research actors include the National Prevention Centre for Drug Addiction, university departments and external experts. The national focal point also disseminates research information through its website and presents new research studies to the national press. Research findings also play an important role in training programmes for professionals in this area. Recent drug-related studies mentioned in the 2014 Luxembourg National report mainly focused on aspects related to the consequences of drug use and to prevalence incidence and patterns of drug use, but studies on responses to the drug situation were also mentioned.

See Drug-related research for more detailed information. 

Key national figures and statistics

b Break in time series.

e Estimated.

p Eurostat provisional value.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2012.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Key figures
  Year   EU (28 countries) Source
Population  2014 549 680
506 824 509 ep Eurostat
Population by age classes 15–24  2014 12.0 %
11.3 % bep Eurostat
25–49  38.4 %  34.7 % bep
50–64  18.7 %
19.9 % bep
GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1  2013 257 100 Eurostat
Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2  2012 23.3 % 29.5 % p Eurostat
Unemployment rate 3  2014 5.9 % 10.2 % Eurostat
Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years  2014 21.2 % 22.2 % Eurostat
Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4  2013 133.5  : Council of Europe, SPACE I-2013
At risk of poverty rate 5  2013 15.9 % 16.6 % SILC

Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation

        EU range      
  Year   Country data Min. Max. Average Rank Reporting Countries
Opioids                
Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) 2007 1 5.9 0.2 10.7   18 21
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   50.2% 6% 93%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   42.1% 2% 81%      
Purity — heroin brown (%) 2013   13.9% 6% 42%   7 24
Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) 2013   EUR 33 EUR 25 EUR 158   4 22
                 
Cocaine                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 1% 5%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 4% 2%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 2% 1%    
All clients entering treatment (%) 2013   17.3% 0% 39%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2013   10.5% 0% 40%      
Purity (%) 2013   41.0% 20% 75%   14 27
Price per gram (EUR) 2013   EUR 82 EUR 47 EUR 103   21 24
                 
Amphetamines                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 1% 7%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 3% 1%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 1% 1%    
All clients entering treatment (%) :   : 0% 70%      
New clients entering treatment (%) :   : 0% 22%      
Purity (%) 2013   23.1% 5% 71%   20 25
Price per gram (EUR) 2013   EUR 10 EUR 8 EUR 63   6 21
                 
Ecstasy                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 1% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 3% 1%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 2% 1%    
All clients entering treatment (%) :   0.3% 0% 2%      
New clients entering treatment (%) :   : 0% 4%      
Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) 2013   77 mg 26 mg 144 mg   8 23
Price per tablet (EUR) 2013   EUR 8 EUR 3 EUR 24   11 19
                 
Cannabis                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 5% 42%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 22% 12%    
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 11% 6%    
All clients entering treatment (%) :   31.1% 3% 63%      
New clients entering treatment (%) :   47.4% 5% 80%      
Potency — herbal (%) 2013   8.5% 2% 13%   10 22
Potency — resin (%) 2013   9.8% 3% 22%   8 20
Price per gram — herbal (EUR) 2013   EUR 15 EUR 4 EUR 25   17 19
Price per gram — resin (EUR) 2013   EUR 7 EUR 3 EUR 21   7 21
                 
Prevalence of problem drug use                
Problem drug use (rate/1 000) 2009   6.16 2.0 10.0      
Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) 2009 2 5.7 0.2 9.2      
                 
Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths                
HIV infections newly diagnosed (rate/million) 2013   9.3 0.0 54.5      
HIV prevalence (%) 2013   1.2% 0% 49%      
HCV prevalence (%) :   : 14% 84%      
Drug-related deaths (rate/million) 2013   20.5 1.5 84.1      
                 
Health and social responses                
Syringes distributed 2013   191 983 124 406 9 457 256      
Clients in substitution treatment 2012   1 254 180 172 513      
                 
Treatment demand                
All clients 2013   289 289 101 753      
New clients 2013   19 19 35 229      
All clients with known primary drug 2013   289 287 99 186      
New clients with known primary drug 2013   19 19 34 524      
                 
Drug law offences                
Number of reports of offences 2013   2 069 429 426 707      
Offences for use/possession 2013   1 015 58 397 713      

Notes

See the explanatory notes for further information on the methods and definitions.

Only the most recent data are available for each key statistic. Data before 2006 were excluded.

1 - Problem heroin users.

2 - Current IDUs.

Additional sources of national information

In addition to the information provided above, you might find the following resources useful sources of national data.

 

Page last updated: Wednesday, 16 December 2015