Our partner in Estonia
National Institute for Health Development (NIHD) — Infectious Diseases and Drug Monitoring Department
Tel. +372 6593997
Fax +372 6593998
Head of focal point: Ms Katri Abel-Ollo
The Estonian NFP is located within the research and development institute, the National Institute for Health Development (NIHD) which, acting as a separate unit, operates the Estonian Drug Monitoring Centre (EDMC). The Drug Monitoring Centre constitutes the national information centre to collect, harmonise and analyse data on illicit drugs in Estonia, as well as disseminating information and cooperating with EU and non- EU national focal points, and other international bodies and organisations.
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Drug use among the general population and young people
The most recent general population survey on drugs was conducted in 2008 among a sample of 1 401 people aged 15–64. Whilst a 2003 survey found that 15 % of people aged 15–64 had tried illicit drugs at some point in their lives, the 2008 survey found that 21 % of people in the same age group had tried drugs. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use had increased in both the older and the younger age groups, but it was considerably higher in the younger age groups. The increase was particularly significant in the 25–34 age group; in 2008 some 36 % of this group had already tried an illicit drug at least once in their lifetime (16 % in 2003). Cannabis remained the most prevalent illicit substance used among those aged 15–34, with last year prevalence at 13.6 % and last month prevalence at 3.2 % in 2008 (10.1 % and 3.3 % respectively in 2003). Amphetamine was the second most frequently used substance during the last year and last month.
The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) has been conducted regularly in Estonia since 1995. The latest survey was in 2011, based on a nationwide sample of schoolchildren aged 15−16. The results for 1995–2007 revealed an increase in prevalence rates for illicit drug use, with some signs of stabilisation in the latest available study. Lifetime experience of any illicit drug other than cannabis more than tripled between 1995 (2 %) and 1999 (9 %), reached 10 % in 2003, but declined to 8 % in 2011. In 1995 some 7 % reported lifetime use of cannabis. This increased to 23 % in 2003; 26 % in 2007; and 24 % in 2011. Lifetime use of ecstasy, which increased from 3 % in 1999 to 6 % in 2007, fell to 3 % in 2009. In 2003 the lifetime prevalence of amphetamine use was 7 %; in 2011 it had decreased to 3 %. The most recent survey indicates a last year prevalence of cannabis use of 17 %, and last month prevalence of 6 %. In terms of gender distribution, males reported use of illicit substances more frequently than females; however, prevalence rates among males remained stable in 2011 compared to the results of 2007 study, while among females there was an increase in prevalence in the same time period.
Further information on a more recent survey examining awareness of risk behaviours can be found in the 2013 National report for Estonia.
Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information
Since 2013 drug prevention issues have been covered under the National Health Plan 2009–20, and its implementation plan for 2013–16 in very general terms. The implementation of the strategy is managed by the Ministry of Social Affairs. However, at the start of 2014 the White Paper on Drug Prevention Policy, agreed by all Ministries, was adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers. It sets out in detail the objectives for substance abuse prevention in Estonia until 2018.
Universal prevention activities are mainly implemented in school settings. Life skills based education is integrated in the subject syllabus of personal, social and health education for grades 2, 5 and 8. A new textbook is being developed to assist in the course’s implementation. Following a comprehensive assessment of school-based drug prevention activities in the previous years, new visual aids, a film and informative leaflets were prepared for use by teachers in classroom settings and were distributed to schools and youth centres. In 2014 the National Institute for Health Development (NIHD) published guidelines on recommended drug prevention activities for schools settings. In 2013, a Swedish alcohol prevention programme ‘Effekt’, addressing 5th grade students and their parents, was piloted in 34 schools in the Estonian health promoting school network. The programme, first implemented for slightly older pupil and their parents, has had a noticeable impact on reducing episodes of drunkenness among children and has had a positive effect on children’s antisocial behaviour. Parents are targeted also through special publications, a website, the Ministry of Interior website, awareness campaigns on Facebook and training activities in workplaces. Nineteen youth information and counselling centres across Estonia, funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, also provide drug prevention information and counselling to young people, and new instructional material on health issues, including drugs, was published in 2011 for professionals working in the centres. Several local initiatives, such as early interventions for use with children showing evidence of problems in school settings, counselling interventions for young people and games promoting an addiction-free lifestyle, have been implemented. A website, provides the general public with information on drug-related issues.
Selective prevention activities target children who are at risk and their parents, and young people in specialised educational settings. These include activities to promote the adoption of healthy behaviour, to strengthen coping and promote social skills, and facilitate self-expression through artistic activities.
The only indicated prevention activities in Estonia target minors and young people in contact with juvenile committees in the north of the country; however, the number of beneficiaries of this programme remain small.
See the Prevention profile for Estonia for more information.
High-risk drug use
Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use (IDU) or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.
The latest estimate of the number of injecting drug users was conducted in 2010 using a capture–recapture method and three administrative databases: the causes of death register, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and the POLIS database. The estimated number of injecting drug users aged 15–44 in Estonia in 2009 was 5 362 (sensitivity interval: 3 906–9 837). When transformed to the EMCDDA standard age range (15–64), there were estimated to be 5.9 injecting drug users per 1 000 inhabitants (sensitivity interval: 4.3–10.8). This estimate also approximately corresponds to the high-risk opioid use prevalence in Estonia.
No estimates for high-risk drug using populations by substance are available in Estonia.
Look for High risk drug-use in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
The treatment demand database is hosted by the Infectious Diseases and Drug Monitoring Department of the National Institute for Health Development (the Estonian National Focal Point), and the data are available from 2008.
The drug treatment demand data in Estonia for 2013 came from a total of nine drug treatment centres, including eight for outpatients, one for inpatients and three treatment units in prison.
In 2013 a total of 434 clients entered treatment, of which 126 were new clients entering treatment for the first time.
Opioids users (mainly illicit fentanyl or 3-methylfentanyl) constituted 93 % of all treatment clients and 81 % of new treatment clients in 2013. Cannabis or amphetamines were reported as the main problem substance for most of the remaining clients. Overall, 85 % of all treatment clients and 88 % of new treatment clients whose primary substance of abuse was injectable, injected it.
In 2013, the mean age of all treatment clients was 32, while new treatment clients tended to be younger, on average 30 years old. With regard to gender distribution among all treatment clients, 84.1 % were male and 15.9 % female, while among new treatment clients 76.2 % were male and 23.8 % female. Most treatment clients in Estonia were ethnic Russian.
Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
Drug-related infectious diseases
National data on drug-related infectious diseases is collected by the Health Board, which receives information from various sources including hospitals, clinics and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing centres and laboratories. Behavioural surveillance studies among people who inject drugs (PWID) using a responded-driven sampling method have been implemented in Tallinn, Kohtla-Jarve and Narva in Ida-Viru County.
In 2001 the Health Board registered the highest number (1 340) of newly diagnosed HIV infections among PWID. This number subsequently decreased between 2002 and 2007 (from 702 to 115). Although there was a sharp decline in the number of newly registered HIV cases among PWID in 2008 compared to previous years, with 36 new cases detected, in 2009 the number increased to 85. There were 62 newly notified cases in 2010; 69 in 2011; and 72 in both 2012 and in 2013. In recent years the transmission route has been unknown for two-thirds to a quarter of newly registered HIV cases, and therefore the data should be interpreted with caution. The number of people infected with HIV registered by the Health Board in 2013 did not followed the steady decline observed between 2007–12 (633 in 2007; 545 in 2008; 411 in 2009; 372 in 2010; 315 in 2012; 325 cases in 2013).
Sero-behavioural studies carried out between 2005 and 2013 among injecting drug users indicated that more than half of those tested were HIV positive. In 2013 HIV prevalence among 350 tested PWID in Tallinn was 57.9 %, while HIV prevalence among 599 tested PWID in Kohtla-Jarve was 61.8 % in 2012. More recent HIV prevalence data from Narva are reported in the 2013 National report. Statistics from the Health Board indicate that in 2013 there were eight cases of acute and 28 cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and three chronic and three acute case of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection registered as linked to injecting drug use. Between 2002 and 2012 there was a decline in the incidence of acute HBV infection, which is attributed to the widespread availability of immunisation among infants and children aged 13. The bio-behavioural surveillance studies among PWID in Kohtla-Jarve indicated HCV prevalence rates of 75 % in 2012 (599 people tested) and 76 % in 2010 (350 tested). In a similar study in Tallinn in 2013 the prevalence of HCV was 90.2 % (326 tested).
Tuberculosis is a common co-infection among HIV-positive PWID. In 2011 there were 41 case of tuberculosis and HIV co-infection registered, of which 40.5 % were drug users. In a bio-behavioural study conducted among PWID in Kohtla-Jarve in 2012, nine respondents indicated ever having tuberculosis.
Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
Drug-induced deaths and mortality among drug users
Data on drug-induced deaths are reported from the causes of death register (the General Mortality Register). Data extraction and reporting is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.
Following a record number of 170 cases of drug-induced deaths recorded in 2012, in 2013 a total number of 111 deaths were reported, which is comparable to the situation in 2010–11 when respectively 101 and 123 cases were reported. Toxicology was known for 107 cases, and 96 of these deaths were attributed to overdose by synthetic opioids, fentanyl and 3-methylfentanyl in particular, and in many instances other psychoactive substances were also present. With regard to the distribution of drug-induced deaths by gender, the majority were men (93 cases). The deceased were on average 31.9 years old. This is an increase compared to the early years of the twenty-first century, when most cases were in their early twenties. Three-quarters (70.2 %) of the victims reported in 2013 were ethnic Russians and 21.6 % were Estonians.
Based on these data, the drug-induced mortality rate among adults aged 15–64 was 127 deaths per million in 2013. The mortality rate in Estonia has been an outlier for some years. The Estonian mortality rate of 127 deaths per million in 2013 is considerably higher than the European average in 2012 of 17.2 deaths per million.
Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information.
Until 2012 drug treatment was part of the National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Dependency. Following its completion, the treatment of drug addiction is now covered by the National Health Plan 2009–20 (RTA) and the implementation plan for 2013–16. Treatment is through the state budget, allocated according to the RTA implementation plan, and almost half of the budget goes to the implementation of opioid substitution treatment (OST). Some larger municipalities also allocate funding for drug treatment. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund does not finance drug addiction treatment.
Traditionally, drug treatment in Estonia is mostly provided through hospitals, which obtain a licence for mental health services in order to provide inpatient and outpatient treatment for problem drug users. According to the Mental Health Act (RT I 1997, 16, 260), only a psychiatrist can provide drug treatment, although they are not required to be specialists in drug treatment. In general, outpatient treatment dominates and inpatient treatment services remain limited. The available treatment methods covered by state or local funding include detoxification, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), medication-free treatment and 12-steps programme-based rehabilitation (treatment communities, outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation programmes), although OST prevails among the available treatment options. Special drug treatment programmes for children and adolescents and persons with dual diagnosis are also available, although treatment options for those groups and for amphetamine injectors, whose prevalence among drug users seems to be on the increase, remain limited.
Methadone detoxification has been available in Estonia since 1998, but although MMT was officially introduced in 2001 it has only been used on a significant scale since 2003 with the opening of a specialist centre. In 2013, MMT was available in eight treatment centres and also in one police detention centre. However, treatment capacities still seem to be unable to meet the growing number of treatment demands in recent years.
In 2013 an estimated 1 166 clients received MMT through seven service providers funded by the national HIV/AIDS prevention strategy and the Tallinn Social Welfare and Health Care Department. The number of clients in substitution treatment is slowly increasing from year to year. Although the coverage of OST is not known due to the lack of an estimate of the size of the opioid-using population, it is assumed to be relatively low (<20 %).
See the Treatment profile for Estonia for additional information.
Harm reduction responses
The Government started funding syringe exchange in 2003, within the framework of the national HIV/AIDS prevention programme. In addition, harm reduction measures were specifically mentioned in the National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Dependency 2004–12 and are continuously funded by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy 2006–15. As a consequence, the coverage and quality of needle and syringe programmes has improved over the years. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are the most active institutions providing services for drug users, and they aim to reduce drug-related harm via activities such as counselling, HIV testing and needle and syringe programmes. New national guidance recommends annual HIV testing for the 18- to 49-year-old population attending primary care. Free testing and counselling is available at AIDS prevention centres and other locations in nine Estonian cities, but diagnostic blood-testing services cannot be offered by NGOs due to legal provisions.
Taking into account that tuberculosis remains a significant health challenge among people who live with HIV, free screening for tuberculosis is provided on a regular basis for high-risk groups not covered by health insurance, such as PWID, residents of shelters and prisoners.
Around 2.2 million syringes were distributed in 2013 through a total of 37 syringe exchange sites (13 stationary and 24 outreach programmes, all operated by NGOs). The prison population, sex workers and men who have sex with men are also seen as target groups and are provided with specific harm reduction services. In 2013, the National Institute for Health Development launched the take-home naloxone pilot programme to respond to the high rate of drug-related deaths in the country. As part of the programme, opioid users and their relatives are taught to recognise overdose, administer the antidote naloxone and provide first aid until emergency services arrive.
See the Harm reduction overview for Estonia for additional information.
Drug markets and drug-law offences
The general trends in terms of drug production and trafficking in Estonia over recent years have not changed significantly. Herbal cannabis is trafficked to Estonia mainly from the Netherlands, while cannabis resin intercepted in Estonia is intended mainly for the Russian market. Heroin is mainly smuggled in through eastern borders and in very small quantities, as there is no domestic market for it. Fentanyl, the most prevalent synthetic opioid used in Estonia, is smuggled from Russia. Ecstasy available in Estonia originates in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany, while other synthetic drugs, i.e. amphetamine and methamphetamine, are mainly smuggled to Estonia from the Netherlands, Poland, Russia and Lithuania and are destined for other Scandinavian countries. Domestic production of amphetamine and GHB is reported, but in rather small quantities. There is some indication of increased Subutex smuggling from Western European through Estonia to other Scandinavian countries. Although in recent years Estonia has been used as an entry point to the European Union for large quantities of cocaine coming from South America (which was illustrated by a record 218 kg of cocaine seized in 2010), in the following year 34 seizures resulted in only 0.83 kg of cocaine being seized, while in 2013 a total of 1.8 kg of cocaine was confiscated in 47 seizures.
In 2013 law enforcement continued to reduce the availability of illicit fentanyl, and as a result there were 276 seizures of fentanyl (258 in 2012), seizing 1.1 kg of this substance. In 2012 a record amount of 27 kg of methamphetamine were seized, while in 2013 the amount confiscated sharply decreased to 2.4 kg. The amount of seized cannabis products, amphetamine and heroin increased in 2013 when compared to 2012.
Almost 23 kg of GHB was seized in 2013, a decrease compared with the previous year (29 kg in 2012). Cannabinoids were the main new psychoactive substances seized in Estonia in 2013.
A total of 4 538 initial reports on drug-law offences (criminal offences and misdemeanours) were reported in 2013, slightly less than in 2012, and more than in 2010 and 2011, but still fewer than the number reported between 2001–08. The vast majority of the reports (80 %) are on use-related offences.
Look for Drug law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data.
National drug laws
The Act on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Precursors Thereof regulates the field of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Republic of Estonia. Under this law, unauthorised consumption of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances without a prescription, or illegal manufacture, acquisition or possession of small quantities of any narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, is punishable by a fine (usually applied by the police) or by detention of up to 30 days. However, proceedings for misdemeanours may be suspended for reasons of expediency. Repeated use and personal possession were deleted as criminal offences from 1 September 2002.
Any act of illegal possession or dealing in drugs not intended solely for personal use is considered a criminal offence, regardless of the type and amount of illicit drug. Activities such as illegal manufacture, acquisition, theft or robbery, storage, transport or delivery of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances with the intent to supply are punishable by up to three years’ imprisonment for the smallest quantities, through to 6–20 years and even life in prison, depending on the quantities involved and other defined aggravating circumstances, such as organised crime.
In 2011 Parliament adopted a legal basis for the implementation of treatment for addiction as an alternative punishment for drug addicts. The treatment can be applied only in cases when a person is sentenced to imprisonment for a period of six months to two years and he/she agrees to undergo the treatment course.
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are regulated by amending schedules of narcotic and psychotropic substances, and in 2013 a new schedule — Schedule V — was added in order to regulate turnover of NPS, in particular for cases when a substance is sold with the intention to cause intoxication, while it may also have other legal applications beyond that purpose. This was specifically required to regulate the industrial trade in GBL and 1,4-BD.
Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information.
National drug strategy
Estonia’s drug policy is elaborated in two strategic documents, the National Health Plan 2009–20 and the White Paper on Drug Prevention Policy.
Following the completion of the Estonian National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Dependency 2004–12, measures to reduce drug use have been addressed as part of the National Health Plan 2009–20 and its Action Plan 2013–16. The plan seeks to prevent and reduce the consumption of narcotic substances and reduce the health and social damage caused by drug use. This change reflects adjustments to objective-setting and strategy development in other policy areas, where overarching cross-cutting strategies, such as the National Health Plan 2009–20, have replaced individual strategies in some areas. While the Minister of Social Affairs holds overall responsibility for the National Health Plan 2009–20, the Minister of Interior is responsible for drugs issues within the plan and its action plans.
Adopted by the Government in January 2014, the White Paper on Drug Prevention Policy elaborates Estonia’s drug policy. Its main objective is to continually reduce drug use and the harms arising from it in Estonia. The White Paper follows the European Union’s balanced approach to drug policy and is structured around seven pillars: (i) supply reduction; (ii) universal primary prevention; (iii) early detection and intervention; (iv) harm reduction; (v) treatment and rehabilitation; (vi) re-socialisation; and (vii) monitoring. Specific actions for achieving the individual objectives of each pillar are specified in an action plan appended to the White Paper addressing the period until 2018. The White Paper on Drug Prevention Policy functions as a guide for planning the inclusion of drug policy issues and responses as part of other areas of Estonian public administration. For example, the approach it sets out is followed in the National Health Plan 2009–20 and its Action Plan 2013–16.
Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs
The Government Committee on Drug Prevention is responsible for coordination at the inter-ministerial level. Its tasks are: setting drug prevention priorities; monitoring and assessing ongoing actions; proposing policy solutions and advising the government on drug problems; and coordinating measures related to drugs enacted under the National Health Plan. The Minister of the Interior chairs the committee. It has members from the Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Social Affairs.
A series of working groups based around the pillars of the 2014 White Paper on Drug Prevention Policy plays an important role in implementing drug policy. The working groups comprise representatives from relevant ministries, agencies and service providers. Each working group is led by a permanent chair, all of which are members of a task force designed to address overlaps and advise the Government Committee on Drug Prevention.
The Department of Public Health within the Ministry of Social Affairs is the permanent coordination unit in the drugs field. The Minister of Social Affairs informs the government on the progress of the implementation of the national drugs strategy. The Infectious Diseases and Drug Monitoring Department of the National Institute for Health Development (the Estonian National Focal Point) is a member of the Government Committee for Drug Prevention and is responsible for drafting annual reports on the drug situation for this committee.
At the local level Health Coordination Committees, which exist throughout Estonia, address drug issues as part of their work.
The 2007–09 and 2011 Action Plans had annual associated budgets. An evaluation report on the implementation of the National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Dependency 2004–12 was completed at the start of 2013. Among other conclusions, this report stressed that a shortcoming of the expiring strategy was its limited budget. This budget has not been made public, however. The new national strategy, the National Health Plan 2009–20, has still not presented an associated budget. Estimates for labelled drug-related public expenditures (1) have, however, been published since 2007. The methodology used to collect and estimate these expenditures cannot be assessed, but results appear to be comparable over time (except for 2012).
The latest data, from 2011, show that labelled drug-related expenditures represented 0.023 % of gross domestic product (GDP). Between 2007–11, labelled expenditures were classified as demand reduction activities (about 76 %) and supply reduction activities (about 24 %).
Based on the available data, trend analysis shows that between 2008 and 2010 labelled expenditures fell from 0.027 % of GDP in 2007 to 0.021 % in 2010. This decrease was probably associated with the public austerity measures following the economic recession of 2008. The largest decrease was reported in supply reduction until 2009. In 2010 labelled expenditures in supply reduction registered a nominal increase, while expenditures in demand reduction activities declined further. In 2011 labelled expenditures recovered partially to 0.023 % of GDP. Comparable data is not available for 2012 or 2013.
- (1) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling.
Drug-related research is organised through the National Health Plan 2009–20 and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. The state research funds are primarily managed by the Ministry of Education and Research, but most research projects in the field of drugs and HIV/AIDS are funded through the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and foreign (mainly United States) or European Union research funds. The main research institutions in the field of drugs are universities (e.g. the University of Tartu, Department of Public Health; the Institute of International and Social Studies) and research and development institutes such as the National Institute for Health Development. Recent drug-related studies mentioned in the 2014 Estonian National report mainly focused on aspects related to the consequences of drug use. Dissemination of research findings is mainly carried out through the national focal point, universities, scientific journals and the media.
See Drug-related research for more detailed information.
Key national figures and statistics
b Break in time series.
p Eurostat provisional value.
1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in purchasing power standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country’s level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.
2 Expenditure on social protection includes: benefits, which consist of transfers, in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.
3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed people comprise those aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.
4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2012.
5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).
| ||Year || ||EU (28 countries) ||Source |
|Population || 2014 ||1 315 818 |
|506 824 509 ep ||Eurostat |
|Population by age classes ||15–24 || 2014 ||11.2 % ||11.3 % bep |
|25–49 || 34.7 % ||34.7 % bep |
|50–64 || 20.0 % |
|19.9 % bep |
|GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1 ||2013 || |
|100 ||Eurostat |
|Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2 ||2012 ||15.4 % ||29.5 % p ||Eurostat |
|Unemployment rate 3 ||2014 ||7.4 % ||10.2 % ||Eurostat |
|Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years ||2014 ||15.0 % ||22.2 % ||Eurostat |
|Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4 ||2013 ||246.6 ||: ||Council of Europe, SPACE I-2013 |
|At risk of poverty rate 5 ||2013 ||18.6 % ||16.6 % ||SILC |
Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation
| || || || ||EU range || || || |
| ||Year || ||Country data ||Min. ||Max. ||Average ||Rank ||Reporting Countries |
|Opioids || || || || || || || || |
|Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) ||: || ||: ||0.2 ||10.7 || || || |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||92.9% ||6% ||93% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||81.0% ||2% ||81% || || || |
|Purity — heroin brown (%) ||2013 ||1 ; 2 ||23% - 23% ||6% ||42% || || || |
|Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) ||: || ||: ||EUR 25 ||EUR 158 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Cocaine || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||2.0% ||1% ||5% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2008 || ||1.3% ||0% ||4% ||2% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2008 || ||0.7% ||0% ||2% ||1% ||16 ||26 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||: || ||: ||0% ||39% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||: || ||: ||0% ||40% || || || |
|Purity (%) ||2013 || ||41.0% ||20% ||75% || ||14 ||27 |
|Price per gram (EUR) ||2013 ||2 ||EUR 80.0 - EUR 120.0 ||EUR 47 ||EUR 103 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Amphetamines || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||3.0% ||1% ||7% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2008 || ||2.5% ||0% ||3% ||1% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2008 || ||1.1% ||0% ||1% ||1% ||25 ||25 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||3.0% ||0% ||70% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||5.6% ||0% ||22% || || || |
|Purity (%) ||2013 || ||13.0% ||5% ||71% || ||11 ||25 |
|Price per gram (EUR) ||2013 ||2 ||EUR 10 - EUR 20 ||EUR 8 ||EUR 63 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Ecstasy || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||3.0% ||1% ||4% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2008 || ||2.3% ||0% ||3% ||1% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2008 || ||1.2% ||0% ||2% ||1% ||22 ||25 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||: ||0% ||2% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||2013 || ||: ||0% ||4% || || || |
|Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) ||2013 || ||92 mg ||26 mg ||144 mg || ||14 ||23 |
|Price per tablet (EUR) ||2013 ||2 ||EUR 6 - EUR 10 ||EUR 3 ||EUR 24 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Cannabis || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) ||2011 || ||24.0% ||5% ||42% || || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) ||2008 || ||13.6% ||0% ||22% ||12% || || |
|Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) ||2008 || ||6.0% ||0% ||11% ||6% ||20 ||27 |
|All clients entering treatment (%) ||: || ||3.7% ||3% ||63% || || || |
|New clients entering treatment (%) ||: || ||12.7% ||5% ||80% || || || |
|Potency — herbal (%) ||2013 || ||13.4% ||2% ||13% || ||22 ||22 |
|Potency — resin (%) ||2013 || ||11.5% ||3% ||22% || ||9 ||20 |
|Price per gram — herbal (EUR) ||2013 || ||EUR 20 ||EUR 4 ||EUR 25 || ||18 ||19 |
|Price per gram — resin (EUR) ||2013 || ||EUR 15 ||EUR 3 ||EUR 21 || ||19 ||21 |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Prevalence of problem drug use || || || || || || || || |
|Problem drug use (rate/1 000) ||: || ||: ||2.0 ||10.0 || || || |
|Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) ||2009 ||3 ||5.9 ||0.2 ||9.2 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths || || || || || || || || |
|HIV infections newly diagnosed (rate/million) ||2013 || ||54.5 ||0.0 ||54.5 || || || |
|HIV prevalence (%) ||: || ||: ||0% ||49% || || || |
|HCV prevalence (%) ||: || ||: ||14% ||84% || || || |
|Drug-related deaths (rate/million) ||2013 || ||84.1 ||1.5 ||84.1 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Health and social responses || || || || || || || || |
|Syringes distributed ||2013 || ||2 183 933 ||124 406 ||9 457 256 || || || |
|Clients in substitution treatment ||2013 || ||1 166 ||180 ||172 513 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Treatment demand || || || || || || || || |
|All clients ||2013 || ||434 ||289 ||101 753 || || || |
|New clients ||2013 || ||126 ||19 ||35 229 || || || |
|All clients with known primary drug ||2013 || ||434 ||287 ||99 186 || || || |
|New clients with known primary drug ||2013 || ||126 ||19 ||34 524 || || || |
| || || || || || || || || |
|Drug law offences || || || || || || || || |
|Number of reports of offences ||2013 || ||4 538 ||429 ||426 707 || || || |
|Offences for use/possession ||2013 || ||3 619 ||58 ||397 713 || || || |