In Italy, data on the prevalence of drug-related infections are available from samples of treatment clients undergoing voluntary testing at public drug treatment services or in general hospitals. Data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases among people who inject drugs (PWID) are notified through the AIDS Operational Centre (COA), and the Integrated Epidemiological System of Acute Viral Hepatitis (SEIEVA) collects data on acute viral hepatitis among drug users.
|Data from 2017. Percentages refer to the number of tested injecting drug clients.|
In 2017, 94 new cases of HIV infection among PWID were reported. The number of new HIV diagnoses among PWID decreased between 2010 and 2017; however, in recent years a trend of increasingly late HIV diagnosis has been reported. The prevalence rate of HIV infection among PWID is considered high in the European context.
The number of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections has decreased considerably since 1985; this is linked to the universal HBV vaccination strategy that was introduced in Italy in 1991. Available data from voluntary testing of new treatment clients indicate that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most prevalent drug-related infection among PWID, while fewer than 1 in 10 drug treatment clients tested positive for HBV.