No standardised national data collection on drug-related emergencies exists in Estonia, but there are different data collection systems in place at sub-regional levels. In 2017, Tallinn City Emergency Medical Services reported 1 396 emergency cases due to overdose; this is an increase from the 1 203 cases reported in 2016. This increase may be explained by the arrival of new, previously unknown and extremely strong forms of fentanyl on the market (furanylfentanyl, acrylfentanyl and carfentanyl).
Two emergency departments in hospitals in Tallinn and Pärnu participate in the European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN Plus) project, which monitors acute drug toxicity in sentinel centres across Europe. Tallinn and Pärnu report around 100 and 200 cases, respectively, of drug-related acute intoxication per year. Most drug-related acute emergencies in Estonia are related to opioid use.