The harm reduction goals within Norway’s alcohol and drug policy have been defined in the 2011-12 white paper ‘See me! A comprehensive drugs and alcohol policy’ and are confirmed in the current national action plan. The aim of harm reduction measures is to improve health and allow people who use substances a more dignified life, including the prevention of harms such as overdoses and drug-related infectious diseases. The national overdose strategy for 2014-17 called for the scaling-up of activities to prevent overdose risks and promotes emergency assistance and treatment for drug users. In June 2016, the government presented a national strategy on hepatitis which prioritises the prevention and treatment of the infection among vulnerable groups, including people who inject drugs (PWID). In Norway, the municipalities are responsible for the organisation of harm reduction measures on the basis of local needs. While cooperation between local public health and social services constitutes the backbone of service provision, private non-profit organisations are important partners for municipalities in the implementation of harm reduction interventions.
Low-threshold facilities offer a broad range of services, such as health checks, vaccinations (including the provision of free hepatitis A and B vaccines), distribution of clean injecting equipment, foil, overdose prevention interventions, nutritional and hygiene guidance, and follow-up and referral to other parts of the health service.
A national survey estimated that more than 3 million syringes were distributed through low-threshold facilities in 2016, the majority being given out in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim.
A total of 14 municipalities participated in the implementation of the national overdose strategy 2014-17, and overdose prevention programmes are funded by dedicated grants from the Directorate of Health. The strategy has been extended to 2018 and the number of participating municipalities is expected to increase. Several municipalities have also adopted local action plans and measures. By the end of 2016, more than 3 800 naloxone kits had been distributed in the participating municipalities.
Two supervised injection rooms were operational in Norway by the end of 2016, in Oslo and Bergen. Since the one in Oslo was established, about 300 000 injections have been supervised there, with no fatality occurring.
|Country||Needle and syringe programmes||Take-home naloxone programmes||Drug consumption rooms||Heroin-assisted treatment|