The 2014 study on drug use among prisoners indicated that around 69 % of prisoners had used drugs at some point in their life, while 49 % had done so in the last year and 40 % in the last month. Drug use was found to be more common among female than male prisoners. Cannabis was the most common substance used during one’s lifetime, followed by amphetamines, MDMA/ecstasy, heroin and cocaine. Around one quarter of prisoners stated that they had used new psychoactive substances (NPS), especially synthetic cannabinoids. One third of prisoners had used illicit substances while in prison. Cannabis was the most commonly reported, followed by analgesics and sedatives, amphetamines, and NPS. A small proportion of prisoners reported initiation of drug use in prison.
The available data suggest that around 17 % of prisoners have hepatitis C virus, while more than 7 % have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom almost half have been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The healthcare activities in prisons are provided through mutual cooperation among the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Health. The medical department of the prison or the Latvian Prison Hospital provides the health services.
Drug treatment interventions in prisons include social rehabilitation, self-help groups and opioid substitution treatment. Prevention and treatment of infectious diseases are also available. Antiretroviral treatment in case of HIV/AIDS is available for prisoners who have started it prior to imprisonment. A number of social reintegration programmes were implemented in various prisons in 2014. Since 2012, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been available to prisoners who had already started it prior to imprisonment. In 2016, 40 inmates received MMT while in prison.