According to the most recent general population survey, cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in France, followed by cocaine, although at much lower levels. Cannabis and cocaine use have increased in the last two decades. Although the prevalence of synthetic stimulants use was lower than that of cocaine use, the last year prevalence of MDMA/ecstasy use, for instance, reached its highest recorded level in 2014. Young people aged 15-34 years reported the highest prevalence of cocaine and MDMA use in the last year.
The latest general population survey indicated that the lifetime prevalence of synthetic cannabinoid use is 1.7 % among 18- to 64-year-olds.
Paris and Bordeaux participate in the Europe-wide annual wastewater campaigns undertaken by the Sewage Analysis Core Group Europe (SCORE). This study provides data on drug use at a municipal level, based on the levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites found in wastewater. The results from Paris suggest a decreasing trend in MDMA levels between 2012 and 2016, with an increase in 2017. The levels of cocaine remained relatively stable until 2016 but recorded an increase in 2017. The levels of amphetamine and methamphetamine were very low, indicating limited use of these substances in Paris.
Data on drug use among students are reported by the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). This survey has been conducted every four years since 1999 in France and collects data on substance use among 15- to 16-year-old students. Lifetime use of cannabis reported by French students was about twice as high as the average (of 35 countries), while lifetime use of new psychoactive substances was more or less average, as was heavy episodic drinking in the past 30 days.
Studies reporting estimates of high-risk drug use can help to identify the extent of the more entrenched drug use problems, while data on first-time entrants to specialised drug treatment centres, when considered alongside other indicators, can inform an understanding of the nature of and trends in high-risk drug use.
France is one of the EU countries where the estimated high-risk opioid use rate is above 5 per 1 000 of the adult population. Heroin and other opioids, such as illicitly used methadone, buprenorphine and morphine sulphate, are often injected, although smoking and inhaling practices are becoming increasingly common for heroin. In 2015, the estimated number of people who inject drugs was above 108 000 (2.68 per 1 000 of the adult population). According to data from low-threshold agencies, a large proportion of them injected cocaine. The data from the 2014 Health Barometer suggest that 2.2 % of adults (18- to 64-year-olds) exhibit high-risk cannabis use behaviour and the level of high-risk cannabis use has remained more or less stable over the years, despite the reported increase in the prevalence of cannabis use in recent years.
Data from addiction treatment and prevention centres (Centres de soins, d’accompagnement et de prévention en addictologie) indicate that cannabis was the most commonly reported primary substance for first-time clients entering treatment in 2016, followed by opioids (mainly heroin) and cocaine. Approximately one out of five treatment clients are female; however, the proportion of females receiving treatment varies by primary drug and type of programme.