In Austria, the federal government oversees matters of imprisonment and detention, and a separate department of the Federal Ministry of Justice manages the prison system.
The most recent data from 2011 indicate that drug use and related problems are common among prisoners, some of whom regularly use illicit drugs, including by injecting.
General healthcare in prisons is subject to the principles of equivalence of care and the funding for it comes from public budgets, through the Federal Ministry of Justice. Healthcare for prisoners is provided through health and treatment services, which are often delivered in cooperation with external organisations. As a common practice, service providers apply general guidelines drafted for health-related services in prison or adopted from other areas.
A variety of treatment services are available in prisons, including opioid substitution treatment (OST), detoxification and assistance with abstinence-oriented goals, if desired, as well as the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis C virus infection and other infectious diseases. OST can be either initiated or continued during imprisonment, but only a small proportion of prisoners receive treatment, although this varies by prison. A few prisons have special drug-free zones. In 2016, prisons started surveying the prevalence of infectious diseases among inmates, and the provision of hepatitis C virus infection treatment with the new direct-acting antivirals also began. Pre-release support programmes are also available to prisoners.