As a result of its geographical location, Romania forms part of the Balkan route for heroin smuggling. The available data indicate that heroin originates in Afghanistan and is trafficked mainly through Turkey and other Balkan countries into Romania, and then towards Central and Western Europe. However, in 2015, two large seizures of heroin from Ukraine were reported, indicating possible activity in the northern route passing through Central Asia and Russia.
Cocaine is shipped from South America in large quantities through the ports of the Black Sea, or by road and air from other EU Member States, and is mainly intended for markets outside the country.
Cannabis comes mainly from Spain, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic, and enters Romania by road. The domestic production of cannabis has increased since 2010. In 2015, a total of 76 cannabis plantations were seized, which is more than was reported in the previous years. However, small-scale domestic cultivation of cannabis predominates.
MDMA/ecstasy and amphetamines originate in Western European countries (Belgium and the Netherlands) and are trafficked to Romania. NPS mainly originate in Asian countries, and usually arrive in Romania via postal courier. In 2015, three laboratories that mixed and packaged NPS were discovered in the country.
In 2015, Romanian law enforcement agencies reported a significant increase in the total quantity of illicit substances seized. Cannabis products remain the primary drugs seized in Romania, although total quantities seized have declined. In 2015, Romania reported seizure of increased quantities of heroin, cocaine and khat, while the quantities of synthetic stimulants (MDMA and amphetamines) seized were lower than in 2014.
Retail price and purity data of the main illicit substances seized are shown below.
Drug seizures in Romania trends in number of seizures (left) and quantities seized (right)
NB Year of data 2015.
Price and potency/purity ranges of illicit drugs reported in Romania
NBPrice and potency/purity ranges: EU and national mean values: minimum and maximum. Year of data 2015.