Poland is both a transit country for drug trafficking and the source of production of synthetic drugs for Western European markets. Poland is one of the major amphetamine manufacturers in the European market. The manufacturing process and distribution of the drugs are handled by organised crime syndicates, which establish, equip and supply clandestine laboratories. The police have reported changes in the modus operandi of criminal groups, which have started to divide amphetamine manufacture into stages. Consequently, these stages can take place in various locations. In 2014, the police dismantled 19 laboratories, 15 for the production of amphetamine, two for methamphetamine and two for mephedrone.
Heroin from Afghanistan, which is destined predominantly for Germany and the United Kingdom, reaches Poland primarily through the Balkan route, although Polish homemade heroin, known as ‘kompot’, is also available on the national market.
Cocaine is smuggled through Western European countries and via Turkey and Greece. Cannabis is trafficked primarily from the Czech Republic, Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands to other Eastern European markets and Russia. The participation of Polish criminal groups in the trafficking and distribution of cannabis across Europe has been noted alongside the rise of professional cannabis plantations. In 2015, record seizures of cannabis resin, cocaine and methamphetamine were reported. Large seizures of herbal cannabis were also recorded in 2015.
Although, in November 2010, more than 1 300 smart shops selling NPS were closed; since 2013, NPS have re-emerged on the Polish market.
Retail price and purity data of the main illicit substances seized are shown below.
Drug seizures in Poland: quantities seized
NB Year of data 2015.
Price and potency/purity ranges of illicit drugs reported in Poland
NBPrice and potency/purity ranges: EU and national mean values: minimum and maximum. Year of data 2015.