In Germany, the domestic production of illicit substances is linked to cannabis and some synthetic stimulants. Cannabis is cultivated outdoors and indoors and a steady increase in the total quantities of cannabis plants seized has been observed over the last four years. Cannabis products with various origins are widely trafficked through the country and they remain the most frequently seized substances. Herbal cannabis seized in Germany mainly originates from the Netherlands, Spain and Belgium and is usually destined for the United Kingdom, Poland and China, while cannabis resin primarily originates from Morocco and is usually intended for other EU countries.
The synthetic stimulant market, which is partly supplied by domestic production, is complex. The methamphetamine market has experienced a great expansion in the eastern regions of the country in recent years. Domestic production of synthetic stimulants has been in the spotlight because of the increase in the number of laboratories producing these substances that were dismantled between 2010 and 2012. However, in recent years, the number of dismantled laboratories has steadily fallen. The Netherlands and, to a much smaller extent, the Czech Republic (especially for methamphetamine) remain the main producing countries for synthetic drugs such as amphetamine and its derivatives. Although a significant proportion of seized substances was intended for the local market, some of it was destined for other European countries or for Asia.
The Netherlands remains the main supplier of the MDMA that is seized in Germany, and the most recent data indicate that it has made a comeback in the market, following a massive drop in seizures between 2006 and 2010.
The quantity of heroin seized shows significant annual variations. In most recent years, the annual quantity of seized heroin has been markedly lower than it was 10 years ago.
Cocaine seized in Germany mainly originates in South America and enters Germany through other European countries. In 2015, a record high quantity of seized cocaine was reported as a result of several large seizures in shipping containers.
Drug supply reduction activities in Germany are driven by the objectives set by the individual Länder and depend largely on local conditions. In general, the activities aim to prevent illegal cultivation or production and trafficking of illicit substances, with the main focus on organised crime groups and money laundering.
Drug seizures in Germany: trends in number of seizures (left) and quantities seized (right)
NBYear of data 2015.
Germany reports median potency (% of THC) or purity (% or mg per tablet) and average prices for the main illicit drugs. The median potency for cannabis resin in 2015 was 12.4 % of THC, for ‘skunk’ it was 12.6 % of THC, while for other types of cannabis products 2.3 % of THC were recorded. The median purity for heroin was reported at 19.1 %, cocaine 69 %, amphetamine 14.6 % and MDMA – 101 mg per tablet. The mean price of cannabis resin was 8.2 EUR/g, herbal cannabis 10.1 EUR/g, heroin 50.2 EUR/g, cocaine – 73.8 EUR/g, amphetamine 12.4 EUR/g. The mean price for one MDMA tablet was 7.6 EUR