According to routine data from the Prisons Department of the Ministry of Justice of Estonia, around 35 % of prisoners had substance use-related health problems in 2015. In addition, around 16 % of prisoners were HIV positive, and more than 40 % were infected with HCV. A study carried out in 2014 among a sample of PWID found that more than a half of them had been in prison at least once.
The Ministry of Justice is responsible for administrating healthcare and social services in Estonian prisons. Drug treatment in prisons includes detoxification, OST and social programmes. Special departments of rehabilitation have been established in three prisons for social reintegration of drug users. OST with methadone is available in all prisons and can be either continued or initiated in prison. In 2015, 118 prisoners received OST.
All prisoners are offered HIV testing, while tests for HBV and HCV are offered to PWID and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Hepatitis B vaccination is available for prisoners who are PWID or PLWHA; in 2015 around 300 prisoners were vaccinated. Around 10 % of HCV-positive prisoners received treatment, and 334 PLWHA in prisons received anti-retroviral treatment. Prisoners are also screened for tuberculosis.
A naloxone programme to reduce drug-related overdoses has been available in Estonian prisons since 2015 and is supported by the Estonian-Swiss cooperation programme.
A naloxone programme to reduce drug-related overdose has been available in Estonian prisons since 2015