Estonia is mainly regarded as a transit country for smuggling illicit substances to Scandinavian countries and Russia. Domestic production of amphetamine and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), as well as the cultivation of cannabis is reported, albeit in very small quantities. Estonian criminal groups are reportedly increasingly involved in the trafficking of Subutex from Western European countries through Estonia to Scandinavian countries.
Herbal cannabis is trafficked to Estonia from the Netherlands, and is mainly intended for the domestic market. Cannabis resin intercepted in Estonia is reportedly in most cases intended for the Russian market. Fentanyl is reported to enter the country from Russia. MDMA/ecstasy seized in Estonia originates from the Netherlands. Other synthetic stimulant drugs, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine, originate from the Netherlands, Poland and Lithuania, and are destined for Scandinavian countries. NPS are typically ordered on the internet and brought into the country by mail service.
Herbal cannabis, amphetamine, fentanyl and GHB are the main substances on the drug market, though NPS continue to claim market position and are reportedly replacing fentanyl. In recent years, the amount of seized cannabis products has increased, while the number of seizures has remained stable or reduced. In 2014, a total of 351.5 kg of herbal cannabis was seized, which was a record for the country. In 2015, a record high amount of 812 kg of cannabis resin and record amounts of MDMA tablets and amphetamine were seized in Estonia. Methamphetamine seizures remain rare, with the exception of 2014, when a record amount of 35.51 kg was seized. Similarly to the previous years, law enforcement continued to reduce the availability of illicit fentanyl in 2015, mainly among street vendors, and around 1 kg of substance was seized during the period 2013-15.
Retail price and purity data of the main illicit substances seized are shown below.
The Estonian law enforcement agencies put their efforts into reducing the availability of illicit drugs among minors, apprehending large-scale trafficking and limiting the spread of fentanyl, which has emerged in recent years in new chemical compositions such as NPS.
Drug seizures in Estonia: trends in number of seizures (left) and quantities seized (right)
NBYear of data 2015.
Price and potency/purity ranges of illicit drugs reported in Estonia
NBPrice and potency/purity ranges: EU and national mean values: minimum and maximum.
Year of data 2015.