Cyprus country overview

Cyprus country overview

Map of Cyprus

About NFP: 

The national focal point was created in March 2004 by the Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council, the main coordinating body responsible for drug policy in Cyprus. The primary role of the national focal point is the collection, analysis, and evaluation of information and data concerning the drug-use situation in Cyprus and the implementation of EMCDDA activities and other related national activities.

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National statistics and key statistics about the country

Drug use among the general population and young people

Content for prevalence: 

In 2012 the third general population survey was carried out in Cyprus on licit and illicit substance use, and mental health issues (the previous surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2009). The sample comprised 3 500 respondents aged 15–64 who were Greek speakers residing in the government-controlled areas. Cannabis remained the most prevalent illicit substance used; however, there are indications of a decrease when compared to the 2009 survey data. Among 15- to 34-year-olds last year prevalence was 4.2 % and last month prevalence was 2.0 %, compared to the respective rates of 7.9 % and 4.5 % in 2009, and 3.4 % and 2.1 % in 2006. Cocaine was the second most prevalent drug reported in 2009 and 2012. Last year prevalence of cocaine use in 2012 was 0.6 % (2.2 % in 2009; 0.7 % in 2006) and last month prevalence was 0.1 % (1.3 % in 2009; 0.4 % in 2006). A strong link between gender and illicit drug use was re-confirmed in 2012, with males having higher prevalence rates for all drugs. The 2012 survey indicated the mean age of cannabis experimentation was 18–20 years, which coincides with an obligatory enrolment to and release from the National Guard service for all men.

The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) has been conducted regularly in Cyprus since 1995 among 15- to 16-year-olds. Lifetime prevalence of cannabis use decreased from 5 % in 1995 to 2 % in 1999, and then increased to 7 % in 2011. Lifetime prevalence of cannabis use is higher among males than females. However, it remains low in comparison to an average rate calculated for all countries participating in the 2011 ESPAD study. In 2011 last year prevalence and last month prevalence of cannabis use had increased compared to 2007 data: from 4 % to 7 % and from 3 % to 5 % respectively. In 2011 lifetime prevalence of inhalants was reported to be 8 % (16 % in 2007; 18 % in 2004). In 2011 lifetime prevalence of cocaine and amphetamines was similar at 4 %, while in 2007 the rate was 3 % for both drugs.

Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information 

Prevention

Content for prevention: 

Prevention and health promotion constitute some of the most important elements of the National Strategy on Illicit Substances Dependence and the Harmful Use of Alcohol 2013–20, which emphasises targeted prevention and proposes to support universal and environmental prevention activities. The Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council (CAC) is responsible for monitoring the implementation of prevention and intervention programmes, through their accreditation, evaluation and funding (where possible). In 2010 prevention guidelines were adopted that aimed to unify and standardise prevention programmes by defining the main prevention approaches and discussing quality and effectiveness, and these were used as a reference point to certify and fund the programmes.

Universal prevention is the most common mode of prevention implemented in school settings, targeting mainly lower and higher secondary school students. The prevention activities in schools are implemented as part of the health education programme. School-based programmes mostly focus on awareness raising and on providing information about drugs, while some of them address the development of personal and social skills. The Fred Goes to School Programme, which is an adaptation of the FreD Goes Net programme, is an ongoing project carried out in school settings targeting young smokers and students who use alcohol.

In 2014 a total of 28 universal prevention programmes were accredited through the CAC accreditation process. The majority of the programmes were implemented on a national level and they mainly include information about psychoactive substances like alcohol and tobacco, self-development, strengthening self-esteem, enhancement of resilience, attitude change, improvement of communication and training of teachers as regards drug-related issues, as well as training parents regarding their role in drug prevention. The age ranges for the target group are between 6 and 22 years.

As evidence-based practices regarding prevention are currently geared to include important environmental dimensions, the prevention programmes in Cyprus also include environmental interventions such as the protection of health through legislative measures (i.e. anti-smoking legislation) and the Health and Safety at Work Act. The legislation to completely ban smoking in public places is an essential environmental prevention strategy with benefits that carry over for the whole range of addictive substances.

In the past few years, special attention has been given to accelerating the implementation of targeted selective and indicated prevention activities. Hence, the support of vulnerable groups is one of the main priorities in the prevention pillar of the National Strategy, which specifies the following high-risk groups: early school leavers, students/soldiers who use legal and illegal substances, prisoners’ children, children whose parents face psychological problems, unemployment or drug problems, pregnant women who use legal or illegal substances, families that need support. Efforts are made to promote the implementation programmes in high-risk areas. In 2014 eight (8) selective programmes were funded.

Indicated prevention takes place through the Protocol of Cooperation for the Referral of Young Offenders to the Mental Health Services Treatment Centres, which was established between the Cyprus Police (Drug Law Enforcement Unit — DLEU), the Sovereign Base Areas Police and the Ministry of Health. The aim of the protocol is: to provide an alternative to prosecution for young drug offenders (arrested for the first time); to give young drug users the opportunity of an early intervention or a more intensive treatment programme, according to their needs; and to promote policies aiming at alternatives to prosecution/imprisonment.

See the Prevention profile for Cyprus for more information. 

Problem drug use

Content for problem drug use: 

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. This new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

Estimates of problem (high-risk) drug use based on treatment demand data, including problem (high-risk) opiate users and problem injecting drug users, are available annually from 2004.

In 2014 there were estimated to be 1 094 high-risk opioid users (sensitivity interval: 874–1 410), or 1.82 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (sensitivity interval: 1.45–2.35). Although an increase in the estimated population size was noted in 2014, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the actual changes.

The estimated number of people who injected drugs (opiates and cocaine) in Cyprus in 2014 was 291 (sensitivity interval: 216–427), or 0.48 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (sensitivity interval: 0.36–0.71). It was estimated that there were 127 methamphetamine users in 2014 (sensitivity interval: 80 to 244), or 0.21 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (sensitivity interval 0.13–0.4), indicating relatively low prevalence levels.

Based on the 2012 general population survey data, it is estimated that about 0.2 % of 15- to 64-year-olds in Cyprus were daily or almost daily cannabis users.

Look for High risk drug-use in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment demand

Content for treatment demand: 

In 2014 a total of 21 treatment units reported treatment demand data (16 outpatient treatment centres, four inpatient treatment centres and one non-governmental organisation (NGO). In 2014 a total of 1 069 clients entered treatment, of whom 565 were new clients entering treatment for the first time in their life. The number of reported drug treatment clients, including new treatment clients, more than doubled between 2004 and 2012; however, in 2013 this trend stopped. This increase, spanning almost a decade, was attributed to the expansion of outpatient treatment, an improvement in data reporting and the reinforcement of police activities in treatment referrals.

Cannabis was the most commonly reported primary drug among all treatment clients (634 clients or 59 %) and among new treatment clients (436 clients or 77%) in 2014, and the proportion of cannabis users among drug-treatment clients has shown an upward trend since 2008. This increase is largely due to the Protocol of Cooperation for the Referral of Young Offenders.

Opioids were reported as a primary drug by 271 (25%) of all and 65 (12%) of new treatment clients, highlighting the overall declining proportion of opioid-using clients among those who enter treatment in most recent years. Because of the high number of clients for whom cannabis is the primary drug, the percentage of clients who inject the drug is low; however, among those whose primary problem substance is an opioid, 57 % of all treatment clients and 51 % of new treatment clients use opioids by injection. Although heroin remains the main opioid reported, since 2012 the number of users entering treatment for the primary misuse of oxycodone, which can be prescribed as a substitution medication, has increased. Since 2010, when the emergence of methamphetamine (crystal meth) users among treatment entrants was first highlighted, a growing number of clients have sought treatment because of methamphetamine use, many of whom were receiving treatment for the first time in their lives.

In 2014 the mean age of all treatment clients was 28 years, while new treatment clients tend to be younger, on average 26 years old. With regard to gender distribution, 90 % of all treatment clients in 2014 were male and 10 % were female. Among new treatment clients, 89 % were male and 11 % were female. Foreigners (mainly Greek) constitute a significant proportion of all treatment demands, and this is one of the peculiarities of treatment demand data in Cyprus. It may be explained by the proximity of the two countries, the common language and the greater availability of substitution treatment in Cyprus, without waiting lists. The use of opioids as a primary drug seems to be higher among this group of treatment clients compared to the Cypriot clients; drug injecting and sharing of injecting equipment are also reported to be more prevalent among foreigners.

Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Drug-related infectious diseases

Content for drug-related infectious diseases: 

Data on infectious diseases are provided by the Department of Infectious Diseases and the National AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health, while data on drug-related infectious diseases are primarily obtained via the implementation of the drug-related infectious diseases (DRID) key indicator.

The implementation of the DRID key indicator did not reveal any human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) positive cases during 2014, but it should be noted that the number of valid tests was small. Among treatment clients, there were four self-reported cases of HIV/AIDS in 2014.

In 2014, among 109 tested injecting drug users, 43.1 % were found to be positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Around two-thirds of these positive HCV tests were among injecting drug users of foreign nationality.

Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Drug-induced deaths and mortality

Content for drug-induced deaths: 

Drug-induced deaths in Cyprus have been reported by the Special Registry since 2004. Data extraction and reporting is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.

In 2014 six drug-induced deaths were recorded, which is twice more than in 2013. In 2014 all of the decedents were male, with a mean age of 41. Two these cases involved other opioids than heroin (oxycodone), as confirmed by toxicological results.

The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) increased to 10 deaths per million in 2014, but remains below the European average of 19.2 deaths per million.

Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment responses

Content for treatment responses: 

The Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council (CAC) is responsible for the accreditation, evaluation, funding (where possible) and coordination of all programmes, actions, and activities related to psychoactive substances by both governmental services and NGOs, as well as the private sector. The CAC also draws up the methodological guidelines and operation specifications of prevention and treatment programmes. For this purpose, treatment guidelines have been developed (see 2010 National Report to the EMCDDA), providing a nationwide system assuring the minimum drug treatment quality standards. In the pillar of Treatment and Social Reintegration, the main goals of National Strategy include: provision of treatment options for specific groups (such as migrants, women, drug users with dual diagnosis), increase of accessibility of treatment (by including low-threshold services in treatment centres, extending the working hours of treatment centres, implementing a Protocol for referring soldiers to drug treatment, introducing legislation for the provision of alternatives to incarceration).

The treatment system in Cyprus consists of counselling, rehabilitation, detoxification and substitution centres. All counselling, outpatient and inpatient programmes use psychosocial interventions as their primary treatment tool.

In 2014 there were 17 specialized drug treatment outpatient centers. Two of the centers offer adolescent counseling services, seven of them mainly provide counseling and motivation enhancement to adults, four offer more intensive care and two are substitution units. Additionally, during 2014 one drop-in centre was established focusing mainly on problematic drug users. In 2014 no specialized treatment was available in prison, but this started operating in 2015. Six of the outpatient drug treatment programmes are offered by the public sector, ten by NGOs (non-profit) and one is offered by a private party (for profit).

Most treatment units report abstinence as their main treatment goal, followed by infectious diseases prevention, the development of self-awareness, self-esteem and confidence and life skills training. The opioid substitution treatment (OST) programs and the drop in center report harm reduction as their main goal.

As to inpatient treatment, it consists of four units; two hospital-based residential drug treatment programmes, a therapeutic community and a residential treatment programme. One of the hospital based residential drug treatments is offered by a public facility and the other one by a private (for profit) agency. Non hospital based residential treatment is offered by an NGO (non - profit), as is the therapeutic community (offered by another non-profit NGO).The latter, the only therapeutic community targeting problem drug users in the country, is also the only organization offering a specialized drug treatment programme for women/ pregnant women/women with children.

OST, was introduced in Cyprus in 2007. It is offered by two main specialized drug treatment services units, one hospital linked to the main units (as an extension), and also by one private clinic. The substances currently used are oxycodone, dihydrocodeine, buprenorphine-based medication and methadone (only for detoxification purposes). In 2014, OST was offered to 178 clients, and around 19 % of them received buprenorphine-based OST. Since 2010, when 294 clients in OST were reported, a significant downward trend is observed, for which there is no clear explanation. It should be also noted that foreign nationals (primarily from Greece) account for one-third of all OST clients.

See the Treatment profile for Cyprus for additional information. 

Harm reduction responses

Content for harm reduction responses: 

The Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council (CAC) coordinates the development of strategies to reduce drug-related harm. The main actors responsible for organising and implementing harm reduction programmes include the various departments of the Ministry of Health, such as the National AIDS Programme and the Mental Health Services. A reparative law was passed in 2010 that declassified the provision and supply of syringes and needles by health professionals to injecting drug users as an offence.

In 2014 a drop-in centre was established to provide needles and syringes to people who inject drugs. The centre also offers overdose prevention, counselling for risk reduction and sex education. Syringes are also available for purchase in all pharmacies. Other harm reduction measures that are provided by all governmental and some non-governmental treatment programmes include: (i) vaccinations and testing for infectious diseases with further referral for treatment; (ii) psychoeducation; and (iii) medical care whenever necessary.

Furthermore, in 2014 the CAC published the report Preventing the spread of infectious diseases in Cyprus, which contains specific recommendations for harm reduction interventions, including carrying out a bio-behavioural surveillance survey that combines collecting biological samples (blood) and behavioural indicators. In addition, aiming to reduce the risk of infectious diseases transmission, the CAC in cooperation with the Ministry of Health is promoting the introduction of vending machines providing sterile needles and syringes. In addition, the CAC in cooperation with the National AIDS Committee is promoting the implementation of quick screening testing by the treatment programmes.

See the Harm reduction overview for Cyprus for additional information. 

Drug markets and drug-law offences

Content for Drug markets and drug-law offences: 

According to the Drug Law Enforcement Unit (DLEU), Cyprus is the final destination of all drugs seized in the country. This may be due to its geographic location at the crossroads of three continents, and its regular connections by air and sea with European, Middle Eastern and African destinations. According to the police, illegal drugs enter the government-controlled areas from the Turkish-occupied area (in 2013 it was the main heroin trafficking route) and from other European Union countries. Air transport remains the most common mode for smuggling illegal drugs into Cyprus, especially in the case of opium, heroin, herbal cannabis, cannabis resin, ecstasy and cocaine. New psychoactive substances mainly arrive via the postal services. Most of the cannabis herbs and stimulants seized in 2014 originated from the Netherlands, while cannabis resin came from Lebanon, heroin from Afghanistan and cocaine from South America.

According to data from the DLEU, 1 082 drug-law offences were reported in 2014 (slightly more than the 996 offences reported in 2013), with cannabis responsible for 887 of these offences.

In 2014 an increase in the number and quantity of herbal cannabis seizures was reported (202.83 kg of substance was seized in 901 seizures). The number of seizures of cannabis resin and cannabis plants decreased in comparison to 2013. The quantity of plants seized slightly increased (487 plants seized in 2014, compared to 403 in 2013), while the quantity of cannabis resin seized was only 90 g. The number of cocaine seizures (107) was higher than in all previous observation periods, and a record amount of 31.75 kg of substance was seized.

The number of seizures involving heroin continued to fall, with a record low of 11 seizures and the quantities seized below 100 g.

With regard to synthetic stimulants, methamphetamine is the most frequently seized synthetic substance with 73 seizures in 2014, and 690 g seized. From 28 seizures of ecstasy a record 17 247 tablets and 1.13 kg of powder were seized.

As in the previous year, in 2014 a number of seizures involved new psychoactive substances, while the quantities remain low, except in three cases, when 3 kg of AM2201, 2 290 blotters of 25 C-NBOMe and 99 kg of mephedrone were seized.

Look for Drug law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data. 

National drug laws

Content for National drug laws: 

In Cyprus drugs are classified as A, B or C according to their level of harm, with class A causing the most harm. Penalties for drug use in Cyprus go up to life imprisonment for all classes, but this has never been implemented. Possession for personal use is regarded as a serious criminal offence, punishable by up to 12 years in prison for class A drugs, eight years for class B and four years for class C; however, first-time offenders aged under 25 should not be sentenced to more than one year in prison.

Trafficking class A or B drugs may be punished by up to life in prison, while trafficking class C drugs carries a penalty of up to eight years. In 2003 limits on the quantities for personal use were introduced, whereby possession of a quantity of a substance above the assigned limit may lead to the presumption that the person intended to sell the substance. The limits include three or more cannabis plants, 30 or more grams of cannabis or its products and 10 or more grams of prepared cocaine or opium (or its derivatives). Since 2010 possession of precursor substances has been penalised with up to two years’ imprisonment or a fine of EUR 10 000.

While there has been a tendency towards increased sentencing in recent years, there is also an ongoing effort to promote the implementation of alternative measures to imprisonment in the criminal justice system. In the pre-trial phase, there is an alternative to prosecution for young drug offenders arrested for the first time. Moreover, legislation has recently been passed by the House of Representatives that provides for the referral of drug-dependent individuals to treatment instead of imprisonment (see the section ‘Prevention’). In 2011 Cyprus began implementing a ‘generic approach’ to control various groups of substances, assisted by an Ad Hoc Committee operating under the CAC comprising of experts from different public services.

Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information. 

National drug strategy

Content for National drug strategy: 

The National Strategy on Illicit Substances Dependence and the Harmful Use of Alcohol provides the overarching political framework and priorities for the period 2013–20. The Strategy aims to contribute to a reduction in drug demand and drug supply in Cyprus, and a reduction in the health and social risks and harms caused by drugs. It covers two main policy areas: drug demand reduction and drug supply reduction; and four cross-cutting themes: promotion of evidence-based policies, research, monitoring, and evaluation. The strategy uses five pillars to address these policy domains and key issues: prevention, treatment and social reintegration, harm reduction, supply control and regulation, and international cooperation. The framework, aim and objectives of the Strategy also serve as a basis for two consecutive four-year Action Plans.

Each of the Strategy’s five pillars has distinct priority areas, objectives and actions, and those responsible for implementation are identified. The Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council is primarily responsible for the coordination of its implementation, but also implements specific actions itself. The Action Plan for 2013–16 provides a list of specific actions with a timetable, responsible parties, indicators and assessment tools.

Related downloads

Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

Content for Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs: 

In Cyprus the Inter-Ministerial Drugs Committee is the high-level mechanism responsible for coordination between government ministries. It is chaired by the President of the Republic and is comprised of six ministers from the Ministries of Health; Interior; Justice and Public Order; Education and Culture; Labour, Welfare and Social Insurance; and Defence.

Day-to-day operational coordination of drug policy is carried out by the Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council (CAC). The CAC is presided over by the chairperson appointed by the President of the Republic, who also functions as the National Drug Coordinator, and has seven members who are nominated by the Council of Ministers. The CAC is responsible for the planning, implementation, supervision and monitoring of the National Strategy. Among its duties, the CAC also functions as an advisory body on drug issues for the government. In this respect, it uses a system of ad hoc expert meetings to address issues related to the National Strategy.

Public expenditure

Content for Public expenditure: 

In 2012 the methods used to estimate public expenditures were improved, following the results of a study commissioned in 2008 (1).

In 2014 the total drug-related expenditure (2) represented 0.04 % of gross domestic product (GDP). The total expenditure was divided into three main areas (Table 1): law enforcement (0.45 %), healthcare (0.46 %) and education (0.1 %).

Trend analysis shows that between 2004 and 2008 total drug-related public expenditure grew steadily from 0.02 % to 0.06 % of GDP. The latest available data show that in 2010 it decreased to 0.03 % of GDP, probably associated with public austerity measures following the economic recession of 2008. Since then expenditure has remained stable, varying between 0.04 % and 0.06 % of GDP.

Table 1: Total drug-related public expenditure, 2014

Drug policy area

Expenditure

(thousand EUR)

% of total

Law enforcement

3 326

0.45

Healthcare

3 402

0.46

Education

680

0.10

Total

7 408

100

% of GDP (a)

0.04 %

 

(a)         EMCDDA estimations.

(1) Kopp, P., Cyprus National Focal Point (2008), ‘The social cost of illegal drugs in Cyprus’, PowerPoint presentation delivered in Nicosia, 19 June 2008, unpublished.

(2) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.

Drug-related research

Content for Drug-related research: 

The national focal point is active in promoting and stimulating further research in the drugs field. Research topics considered a priority are related to the implementation and monitoring of the EMCDDA’s five key epidemiological indicators. The top research priorities are to estimate drug use in the general and school populations and to obtain the most accurate estimates of problem drug use. Recent drug-related studies focused mainly on aspects related to prevalence incidence and patterns of drug use.

See Drug-related research for more detailed information. 

Key national figures and statistics

Content for Key national figures and statistics: 

b Break in time series.

e Estimated.

p Eurostat provisional value.

: Not available.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2014.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Key figures
  Year   EU (28 countries) Source
Population  2014 858 000 506 944 075 bep Eurostat
Population by age classes 15–24 2014  14.3 % 11.3 % bep Eurostat
25–49  37.5 % 34.7 % bep
50–64  18.1 % 19.9 % bep
GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1  2014 82 100 Eurostat
Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2  2013 22.3 % : Eurostat
Unemployment rate 3  2015 15.1 % 9.4 % Eurostat
Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years  2015 32.8 % 20.3 % Eurostat
Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4  2014 79.4  : Council of Europe, SPACE I-2014.1
At risk of poverty rate 5  2014 14.4 % 117.2 %  SILC

Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation

Content for Data sheet: 






        EU range      
  Year   Country data Min. Max.      
Opioids                
Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) 2014   1.82 0.2 10.7      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   25.4% 4% 90%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   11.5% 2% 89%      
Purity — heroin brown (%) :   : 7% 52%      
Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) :   : EUR 23 EUR 140      
                 
Cocaine                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   4.0% 1% 5%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   0.6% 0% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   0.3% 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   10.3% 0% 38%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   7.1% 0% 40%      
Purity (%) :   : 20% 64%      
Price per gram (EUR) :   : EUR 47 EUR 107      
                 
Amphetamines                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   4.0% 1% 7%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   0.4% 0% 3%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   0.3% 0% 1%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   4.3% 0% 70%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   3.5% 0% 75%      
Purity (%) :   : 1% 49%      
Price per gram (EUR) :   : EUR 3 EUR 63      
                 
Ecstasy                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   3.0% 1% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   0.3% 0% 6%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   0.3% 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.1% 0% 2%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.0% 0% 2%      
Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) :   : 27 mg 131 mg      
Price per tablet (EUR) :   : EUR 4 EUR 16      
                 
Cannabis                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   7.0% 5% 42%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   4.2% 0% 24%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   2.2% 0% 11%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   59.4% 3% 63%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   77.2% 7% 77%      
Potency — herbal (%) :   : 3% 15%      
Potency — resin (%) :   : 3% 29%      
Price per gram — herbal (EUR) :   : EUR 3 EUR 23      
Price per gram — resin (EUR) :   : EUR 3 EUR 22      
                 
Prevalence of problem drug use                
Problem drug use (rate/1 000) 2014   2.7 2.7 10.0      
Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) 2014   0.5 0.2 9.2      
                 
Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths                
HIV infections newly diagnosed (cases / million) 2014   3.5 0.0 50.9      
HIV prevalence (%) 2014   0.0 - 1.6 0% 31%      
HCV prevalence (%) 2014   43.1% 15% 84%      
Drug-related deaths (rate/million) 2014   10.0 2.4 113.2      
                 
Health and social responses                
Syringes distributed 2014   382 382 7 199 660      
Clients in substitution treatment 2014   178 178 161 388      
                 
Treatment demand                
All clients 2014   1 069 271 100 456      
New clients 2014   565 28 35 007      
All clients with known primary drug 2014   1 068 271 97 068      
New clients with known primary drug 2014   565 28 34 088      
                 
Drug law offences                
Number of reports of offences 2014   1 082 537 282 177      
Offences for use/possession 2014   917 13 398 422      

Additional sources of national information

Contact information for our focal point

Address and contact: 

Cyprus Anti-Drugs Council — Cyprus National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction

Cyfield Tower
Limassol Avenue 130
City Home 81, 4th floor
2015 Strovolos
CY — Nicosia
Cyprus
Tel. +357 22442970
Fax +357 22305190

Head of national focal point: Ms Ioanna Yiasemi

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