Croatia country overview

Croatia country overview

Map of Croatia

About NFP: 

The national focal point is located within the Office for Combating Drug Abuse of the Government of the Republic of Croatia. This Office develops drug policy and coordinates the activities of the ministries and other actors involved in the implementation of the national drug strategy at the political level. It monitors the drug situation in Croatia and proposes measures to address drug-related issues.

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Last updated: Thursday, May 19, 2016

Drug use among the general population and young people

Content for prevalence: 

The first general population survey was implemented in Croatia in 2011 (reported in 2012). The sample of 4 756 respondents aged 15–64 was selected using a multi-phase stratified sampling method. The face-to-face interviews, with an option of self-administration of a questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, were conducted using the European Model Questionnaire. A total of 16 % of respondents reported consumption of any illicit drug (cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, cocaine or heroin) at least once in their lifetime. Cannabis was the most prevalent drug, reported by 15.6 % of respondents, followed by amphetamines (2.6 %) and ecstasy (2.5 %). About 5 % of respondents had used cannabis in the last 12 months and 2.9 % in the last 30 days. Illicit drug use was more frequently observed in larger cities and among younger respondents. Reported recent cannabis use was found to be higher in younger age groups, and was highest among 15- to 24-year-olds. About 12.6 % of respondents in this age group reported cannabis use in the last 12 months, while 7.3 % had used it in the last 30 days. Male respondents, irrespective of their age, reported cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine and ecstasy use in their lifetime more frequently than females. The prevalence of sedative and tranquiliser use without a prescription was higher among female respondents in all age groups.

The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) has been conducted nationwide regularly since 1995. Cannabis is consistently reported as the most frequently used illicit substance. In 2011 results indicated that among 15- to 16-year-old students lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 18 %, last year prevalence was 13 % and last month prevalence was 7 %. Lifetime prevalence of volatile substances and other inhalants was reported by 28 % of the sample, which is considerably above the ESPAD averages. Regarding all other substances, lifetime prevalence was equal to or below 2 %.

The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey was last conducted in Croatia in 2013/14. Students aged 15 were interviewed about their herbal cannabis use, and the lifetime prevalence rate was found to be 15 % (16 % in 2002; 14 % in 2006; 13 % in 2010). More males (19 %) than females (11 %) reported lifetime herbal cannabis use.

In 2009 Zagreb became the fourth city in the world to measure the quantities of illicit drugs in communal wastewater to determine trends of drug use. Data were collected again in 2011. According to the results of both studies, cannabis remained the most widely used drug in the city. Although heroin was the second most widely detected substance in 2009, in the 2011 study more cocaine than heroin was detected. In 2013 the study was replicated in Zadar, a popular summer resort. The findings indicated that cannabis was the most widely used drug in the city and supported the hypothesis that significant seasonal variations in drug use patterns exists between the off-season and summer periods.

In 2013 an online survey on the use of new psychoactive substances among a convenience sample of 1 035 active users of the forum.hr website indicated that about 13.9 % had tried a new psychoactive substance in the past. The results of the 2014 Flash Eurobarometer on young people and drugs study indicates lifetime use of new psychoactive substances among 15- to 24-year-olds at 7 %.

Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information  

Prevention

Content for prevention: 

The implementation of effective and evidence-based prevention programmes is one of the key actions under the National Strategy on Combating Drug Abuse for 2012–17. In 2010 the first National Addiction Prevention Programme for Children and Youth in the Educational Setting and Social Welfare System for 2010–14 was adopted. The programme outlined the following preventive aspects: (i) the main target audience (pre-school children and pupils, university students and children and young people in social care institutions); (ii) the evaluation criteria for prevention programmes; and (iii) the standards for drug use prevention activities.

Prevention programmes in the Republic of Croatia are being implemented primarily at the local community level in the 21 counties as multidisciplinary activities with the participation of different sectors such as education, health, social care, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the media.

Universal drug prevention is mostly organised and implemented within the education system under the oversight of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. School-based prevention is primarily aimed at motivating young people to adopt healthy lifestyles, developing their self-esteem and social skills, offering alternative activities for leisure time and thus eventually reducing young people’s interest in experimenting with addictive substances. In 2013 a module-based health education curriculum was introduced in all elementary schools and high schools.

Family-oriented prevention activities are implemented through social welfare centres or by local organisations, and focus on developing robust parenting skills. At the community level, youth clubs and NGOs offer numerous educational activities during young people’s leisure time, using peer education methods or proposing alternative positive behavioural models for leisure activities. There has recently been a shift in universal prevention strategies from a programme of primarily information provision and mass media campaigns towards more skills-based prevention activities.

In recent years well-respected international programmes such as Unplugged, Life-Skills Training Programme, Communities that Care (CTC), and Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATH/RASTEM) have been implemented in Croatia. The Life-Skills Training Programme is implemented in schools in Primorje-Gorski Kotar and Zadar, and since its inception has covered about 54 000 pupils. In 2009–10 Unplugged was implemented in 15 primary schools in Zagreb and its surroundings and from 2011 the programme became part of the catalogue for teachers’ professional training activities, while PATH/RASTEM was implemented in pre-schools and elementary schools in Istria, Labin, Rijeka, Vrsar and Zagreb. Particular attention is given to the evaluation of these programmes.

Some projects undertake selective prevention with vulnerable families, such as those with imprisoned parents or parents with drug-abuse problems, minority communities (such as Roma), and, within the educational context, aimed at children with special needs, in children’s homes, from high-risk families or those with learning problems. These programmes mainly reinforce the need for a healthy lifestyle and risk reduction, promote the role of parenting and provide alternative leisure activities for young people at high risk of substance abuse. Indicated prevention targets young experimenters in contact with social welfare centres or public health institutes. In 2013 the professionals from public health and social welfare centres were trained on the application of the MOVE prevention programme, which consists of brief motivational interventions aimed at young people demonstrating risky behaviours.

In 2010 the Office for Combating Drug Abuse launched an Addiction Prevention Programme database containing data on all projects, contributing to the dissemination of information on effective and high-quality interventions. The launch of the database was followed by several training events for drug prevention experts in 2011 and 2012 to promote evidence-based prevention programmes in the country, and in 2013 and 2014 with the funding of prevention projects that fulfil minimum quality criteria.

See the Prevention profile for Croatia for more information.  

Problem drug use

Content for problem drug use: 

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

In 2010 a capture–recapture study was used for the first time to estimate problem opioid use. The estimated number of problem opioid users was 10 726 (sensitivity interval: 9 598–11 853), or 3.61 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (sensitivity interval: 3.23–3.99).

In 2012, based on data from the latest general population survey, about 0.5 % of the general population aged 15–64 used cannabis daily or almost daily.

Since 2006 a mortality multiplier method has also been used to estimate the number of problem drug users (PDUs). In 2012 the estimated number of PDUs in Croatia was 10 012 (sensitivity interval: 7 842–13 723), or 3.48 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (sensitivity interval: 2.73–4.78).

Look for High-risk drug use in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment demand

Content for treatment demand: 

The Register of Persons Treated for Psychoactive Drug Abuse of the Croatian Institute of Public Health has been gathering data on treatment demand clients from a wide range of service providers since 1978. In 2014 the treatment demand data were gathered from 26 inpatient treatment units, 22 outpatient treatment units and five low-threshold facilities.

In 2014 a total of 7 812 clients entered treatment, of which 1 055 were new clients entering treatment for the first time.

Among all treatment clients, 6 241 (80 %) reported opioids as their primary drug (mainly heroin), followed by 1 103 (14 %) for cannabis and 132 (2 %) for both cocaine and other stimulants. Among new treatment clients, 679 (64 %) report cannabis as their primary drug, followed by 210 (20 %) clients whose primary substance was opioids, and 42 (4 %) for stimulants. Injecting drug use was less prevalent among new treatment clients than among all treatment clients. Thus, 41.9 % of new treatment clients who reported opioids as their primary substance of use injected it, while injecting prevalence was as high as 72.6 % among all treatment clients whose primary substance for which they entered treatment was opioids.

In 2014 the mean age of all treatment clients was 34 years, while people entering treatment for the first time were significantly younger (on average 26 years old). An ageing trend among treatment entrants has been reported in recent years. With regard to gender distribution, 82.5 % of all treatment clients were male and 17.5 % were female; among new treatment clients a slightly higher proportion of females is reported, at 20.2 %.

Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Drug-related infectious diseases

Content for drug-related infectious diseases: 

The number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases detected among the drug-using population has remained stable over recent years. As in 2013, no HIV cases among people who inject drugs were reported in 2014. The data from the seroprevalence study in 2007–08 indicated a very low prevalence of HIV among drug users. Ongoing guidance, being well informed, the availability of opioid substitution therapy (OST), counselling centres and needle and syringe exchange programmes have all contributed to the low figure.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are not nationally monitored in Croatia to the same extent as HIV, and the number of new cases of drug users being infected with HBV and HCV is therefore not known. The results from the testing of opioid users in treatment indicated a declining trend of HCV among this population for the period 2005–14, while in 2014 the prevalence of HBV had slightly increased among treated opioid users.

Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information.  

Drug-induced deaths and mortality

Content for drug-induced deaths: 

There are two coordinated sources of information on drug-induced deaths in Croatia: the Central Bureau of Statistics, which operates a Mortality Register and collects and evaluates all data on deaths in the country; and the Register of Persons Treated for Psychoactive Drug Abuse of the Croatian Institute of Public Health (CIPH), which encodes the basic causes of death and compiles overall statistics. The Mortality Register includes, in addition to demographic data, all causes of death and classifies them using a four-digit code; this is connected to the CIPH database. So, as soon as the Mortality Register is changed the CIPH database is automatically updated. Toxicological data are reported by the Ivan Vucetic Forensic Science Centre. Data extraction and reporting is in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.

According to the General Mortality Register (Selection B), in the last 15 years the number of drug-induced deaths has gradually increased and in 2007 some 115 deaths were recorded, the highest number to date. In 2014 a total of 59 deaths were reported, which is more than in 2012 and 2013 when 48 cases were reported each year. In 2014 the majority of the deceased were males (51 cases). The mean age of the victims was 39.3 years. Toxicological results were reported for 42 cases, of which 35 were associated with opioids (mainly methadone).

Based on these data, the drug-induced mortality rate among adults (aged 15–64) was 20.8 deaths per million in 2013, similar to the European average of 19.2 deaths per million.

Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information.

Treatment responses

Content for treatment responses: 

Drug-related treatment in Croatia is the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, while certain types of treatment (such as programmes for young drug users, rehabilitation and re-socialisation of drug addicts) are the responsibility of the Ministry of Social Policy and Youth. Drug treatment in prisons and during probation period is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. Treatment services that are under the state’s authority are funded by the Ministry of Health, the counties and the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance. Therapeutic communities or some associations are funded by the Office for Combating Drug Abuse of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the Ministry of Social Policy and Youth, the Ministry of Health, the counties and also other donors.

The central element of the Croatian drug treatment system is the provision of care through outpatient treatment facilities, although hospital-based inpatient treatment and therapeutic communities are also available. Outpatient treatment is organised through a network of services for mental health promotion and addiction prevention at county institutes of public health. These services include individual and group psychotherapy, prescription of and the continuation of OST and other pharmacological treatments, and testing and counselling on a wide range of issues. In terms of modalities, medication-based treatment prevails. Apart from these centres, outpatient drug treatment is also provided by some associations working on low-threshold principles, general practitioners, in particular on the continuation of OST, and some outpatient units in general hospitals. Inpatient treatment is provided by hospitals, and covers detoxification, adjustment of pharmacotherapy, drug-free programmes, and individual and group psychosocial treatment. Therapeutic communities offer long-term rehabilitation options. Since 2009 efforts have been made to standardise and professionalise activities in therapeutic communities. Psychosocial treatment, focused on the enhancement of interpersonal relationships and life situation of clients, can be provided as part of a drug-free treatment approach, but frequently also complements OST and other treatment forms. In order to standardise the delivery of psychosocial treatment, guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of drug users in the healthcare, social and prison system were adopted in 2014.

Methadone was introduced in 1991 and is currently used within the following types of treatment: short-term inpatient detoxification; extended outpatient detoxification; and short- and long-term maintenance treatment. Substitution with buprenorphine was introduced in 2004, and there has been a steady increase in the proportion of clients receiving buprenorphine since 2006, when the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance began covering the costs of such treatment; since 2012 more than half of all OST clients have received buprenorphine as a substitute. Only specialist office-based medical doctors (e.g. general practitioners) and treatment centres can prescribe substitution treatment. However, this treatment is predominantly administered by general practitioners. OST is also available in prison settings. In 2006 guidelines for the use of methadone in the substitution therapy of opiate drug users were adopted by the Croatian Government. In December 2006 guidelines for the use of buprenorphine in opioid substitution therapy were also approved by the Commission for Combating Drug Abuse of the Government of the Republic of Croatia. In 2009 a decision was taken to introduce Suboxone as an alternative substitution substance.

In 2014 the total number of clients in substitution treatment was 6 867, of which 1 999 were on methadone and 2 244 on buprenorphine-based medication.

See the Treatment profile for Croatia for additional information.

Harm reduction responses

Content for harm reduction responses: 

Harm reduction programmes, primarily needle and syringe programmes, are aimed at injecting drug users in order to prevent the spread of blood-borne diseases, especially HBV, HCV and HIV, and to reduce other adverse consequences related to drug use. The first harm reduction programmes focusing on problem drug users were introduced in 1996, immediately after the Croatian Parliament recognised this approach as an important element of the national drug strategy. The NGO Help initiated its first project in 1996 in Split, while the Croatian Red Cross started its projects in Zagreb, Zadar and Pula in 1998, followed by activities in Rijeka by the NGO Terra in 1999. Today these programmes are regularly conducted in six fixed locations, 41 locations through outreach workers and 55 locations through mobile vans, operated by the Croatian Red Cross and the NGOs Institut, Help, Hepatos, HUHIV, Let, Ne-ovisnost and Terra.

Data from five of the six specialist agencies with fixed syringe programmes show that 2 431 clients have used the syringe programmes in 2014 and been provided with around 200 000 syringes. Needles and syringes can also be bought in pharmacies, but the number sold to drug addicts is not monitored. Harm reduction services also provide other injecting equipment or tools needed for the preparation and injecting of drugs as well as condoms and voluntary, anonymous and free-of-charge counselling and testing. Programmes also print and distribute information about drug use. In recent years they have also contributed to overdose prevention and focused on the reduction of further health-related risks among their clients. Harm reduction programmes cooperate in behavioural research projects carried out among drug users.

Under the Croatian National Programme for the Prevention of HIV and AIDS 2011–15, a number of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) counselling centres provide anonymous and free counselling and HIV testing.

See the Harm reduction overview for Croatia for additional information.

Drug markets and drug-law offences

Content for Drug markets and drug-law offences: 

The Republic of Croatia is on a transit route through which illicit drugs and precursors are smuggled to and from western Europe. Heroin is usually trafficked from the production countries in the east to consumer countries in the west, while precursors and synthetic drugs are smuggled in the opposite direction. The majority of cannabis products, mainly consisting of herbal cannabis, historically originated in Albania and Morocco; however, small quantities of cannabis products are cultivated in Croatia for domestic use. Recently, due to successful law enforcement activities, a shortage of herbal cannabis of Albanian origin has been noted, and increased smuggling of cannabis has been reported by land from other countries in the western Balkans. In 2014 a total of 106 outdoor plantations were detected in Croatia. Heroin comes from Afghanistan through the southern leg of the Balkan route, mainly by road. Cocaine is traditionally produced in South and Central American countries, and smuggled to Croatia via sea or land from western Europe. Amphetamines and other synthetic drugs are primarily smuggled from the Netherlands and Belgium.

In 2014 the total number of reported drug-law offences were 9 999, indicating a slight upward trend from 2010. The majority of these were related to cannabis.

When compared to 2013, the number of drug seizures in 2014 increased for all drugs except cannabis plants, heroin and methamphetamine. Herbal cannabis remains the most frequently seized substance, involved in 5 591 seizures in 2014, followed by amphetamine (576 seizures), ecstasy (517 seizures), cannabis resin (371 seizures), cocaine (231 seizures), cannabis plants (188 seizures) and heroin (132 seizures). Six seizures involving methamphetamine were reported, while the amount of this substance seized remains very small (110 g). In 2014 a record amount of herbal cannabis, 1 639.88 kg, was seized. In 2014 a total of 46.85 kg of heroin was seized, which is four times more than in 2013 and ends the downward trend observed between 2009–13.

In 2014 the quantity of cocaine seized decreased when compared with the previous year (5.84 kg in 2014 and 9.1 kg in 2013); however, although the quantities fluctuate from year to year they remain relatively small when compared to the record amount of 105 kg seized in 2007. The quantity of amphetamine seized was 13.88 kg, which is comparable with the amounts seized in 2013, 2011 and 2008–09. In 2014 there was almost a three-fold increase in number and quantity of ecstasy seized when compared to 2013.

Look for Drug-law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data.

National drug laws

Content for National drug laws: 

In Croatia drug control is mainly covered by two legal acts: the Law on Combating Drug Abuse (LCDA) and the Criminal Code. The LCDA, passed in November 2001 and updated since, regulates the conditions for the manufacture of, possession of and trade in drugs, substances and precursors. It prohibits unauthorised drug cultivation, possession and trafficking, and provides for fines for legal entities in breach of drug trading regulations, and for individuals who cross the border without declaring psychoactive medicines. More serious offences are prosecuted under the Criminal Code. Discarding syringes and failure to notify the police of suspicious events are also specific offences. It also outlines a system for the prevention of drug addiction and assistance for addicts and sporadic drug users.

On 1 January 2013 new amendments to the Criminal Code came into force. Possession of small quantities of drugs for personal use is no longer a criminal offence but instead is classed as a misdemeanour under the LCDA, punishable by a fine of EUR 650–2 600. The judgment on whether the quantity can be classed as ‘small’ is made by the state prosecutor or court in each case. Illicit production and processing of drugs with no intention to sell is punishable by six months to five years in prison. Illicit production, processing, possession, import and export with intention to sell are punishable by 1–12 years in prison, which under defined aggravating circumstances, including the involvement of children or organised groups, or serious health damage, may increase to three or even 5–15 years. Precursor trafficking carries a penalty of six months to five years in prison.

At the same time, the new Criminal Code urges the court to use a number of alternative measures to imprisonment, such as fines, community service, probation and treatment, for cases when a prison sentence of up to six month is prescribed. Compulsory treatment may be prescribed for up to three years and time spent in treatment is included in the sentence.

Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information.  

National drug strategy

Content for National drug strategy: 

Adopted in May 2012, Croatia’s National Strategy on Combating Drug Abuse for 2012–17 builds on the evaluation of the previous strategy. It seeks to reduce both the demand for and the supply of drugs in society, while protecting the health of individuals, families and communities through an integrated and balanced approach to drug problems. This overarching vision is expressed in four main objectives:

  • Prevent and reduce the abuse of drugs and other addictive substances, especially among children and young people.
  • Reduce the scale of drug abuse and addiction problems in society and the related health and social risks that result from drug abuse.
  • Reduce the availability of drugs at all levels, and reduce all forms of crime related to drug abuse.
  • Improve, build and network a system for drug abuse suppression and combating addiction at the national and local level.

The Croatian drug strategy reflects the balanced approach to drug problems expressed in the EU Drugs Strategy 2005–12 and its successor, the EU Drugs Strategy 2013–20. This is evident from the strategy’s structure, which is built around the two pillars of demand and supply reduction and the three cross-cutting areas of: (i) information, research, monitoring and evaluation; (ii) coordination; and (iii) international cooperation. While the strategy is primarily concerned with illicit drugs, prevention programmes also focus on licit drugs (alcohol, tobacco, prescription medications) and other addictions (gambling, the internet), while supply reduction activities also address doping alongside precursors, illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances.

As with the previous Croatian drugs strategy, the current strategy is accompanied by two consecutive action plans, each spanning a three-year period. The second action plan, which was adopted on 2 April 2015, runs from 2015 to 2017. It is based around the same pillars and cross-cutting themes as the National Strategy on Combating Drug Abuse for 2012–17.

Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

Content for Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs: 

The Commission for Combating Drug Abuse of the Government of the Republic of Croatia is composed of higher members of all relevant ministries and is chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister, who is responsible for social issues and human rights. The Commission develops drug policy and coordinates the activities of the ministries and other actors involved in the implementation of the national drug strategy at the political level. It also adopts annual programmes of action in this field.

The Office for Combating Drug Abuse is a specialised government service that deals with the day-to-day (operational) implementation of the national drug programme and its monitoring. It monitors the drug situation in Croatia and proposes measures to address issues. Attached to the Office for Combating Drug Abuse, the Expert Council is comprised of experts from different fields (prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, policing and law) and a president appointed by government, and is tasked with supporting decision-making at the Office for Combating Drug Abuse.

Established in 2004 and 2005, County Committees for Combating Drug Abuse coordinate the implementation of the drug strategy at the local level. The committees function as drug coordinators and implement County Action Plans on Combating Drug Abuse. Members of these committees are experts and representatives of local administrations.

Public expenditure

Content for Public expenditure: 

Croatia has an annual planned drug-related budget, which finances the Action Plan. Additionally, labelled drug-related expenditures (1) are estimated annually. The first scientific evaluation of the National Strategy on Combating Drug Abuse was implemented in 2011, reviewing the period 2006–12. In 2013 authorities estimated total drug-related public expenditure for the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, based on a well-defined methodology. In 2014 the efficiency of public spending and its compliance with the strategic priorities set in the National Strategy and Action Plan was assessed.

Total drug-related public expenditures in 2014 represented 0.4 % of gross domestic product (GDP)). The Croatian central government spent EUR 102 712 000, of which 79.9 % financed public order and safety activities and 17.6 % health, while less than 3 % of total expenditure financed education, social protection and defence (Table 1).

Trend analysis shows that between 2005 and 2008 labelled expenditures grew sharply, in nominal terms and as a percentage of GDP. However, in 2009 the increase slowed and in 2010 labelled expenditures registered a 10 % nominal decrease. Total expenditure started to decline in 2011, and fell by close to 15 % in 2011 and 2012 (accumulated terms). This decline was probably associated with public austerity measures following the economic recession of 2008. Since 2013 drug-related expenditure has reverted and has started showing positive growth rates.

Table 1: Total drug-related public expenditures, 2013

COFOG classification (a)

Labelled expenditure (EUR)

%

Unlabelled expenditure (EUR)

%

Total expenditure (EUR)

% of total (b)

General public services

62 916

 

62 916

0.1

Public order and safety

1 323 483

80 776 636

82 100 119

79.9

Defence

1 310

 

1 310

0.0

Health

12 478 214

5 587 207

 

18 065 421

17.6

Education

124 301

465 685

589 986

0.6

Social protection

1 885 781

69 455.8

 

1 955 237

1.9

Total

15 876 004

86 898 984

 

102 712 073

100.0

% of total expenditure (b)

 

15.5 

 

84.6

 

-

% of GDP (b)

 

0.06

 

0.34

 

0.4

(a) According to the United Nations Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) Eurostat data sources: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/ (general) and http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=4

(b) EMCDDA estimations. Source: Jurlina Alibegović, D., Budak, J., Slijepčević, S., Švaljek, S. (2013), Analiza javnih rashoda i prijedlog pokazatelja rezultata i ishoda za praćenje ostvarivanja ciljeva u području suzbijanja zlouporabe droga u Republici Hrvatskoj, Ekonomski institut Zagreb, January 2013

 (1) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.

Drug-related research

Content for Drug-related research: 

Drug-related research in Croatia has increased significantly in recent years. Research is mainly implemented by government agencies. Libraries and websites from funding and research agencies are the main channels for disseminating drug-related research findings. Over the last four years a significant number of surveys on the abuse of addictive substances have been conducted in the Republic of Croatia. The surveys have been financed by the Office for Combating Drug Abuse of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the the EMCDDA, the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, the Ministry of Health and country and local level institutions.

See Drug-related research for more detailed information. 

Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation

Content for Data sheet: 






        EU range      
  Year   Country data Min. Max.      
Opioids                
Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) 2010   3.61 0.2 10.7      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   79.9% 4% 90%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   19.9% 2% 89%      
Purity — heroin brown (%) 2014 1 14.5% 7% 52%      
Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) 2014   EUR 59 EUR 23 EUR 140      
                 
Cocaine                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 5%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   0.9% 0% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   0.5% 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   1.7% 0% 38%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   3.1% 0% 40%      
Purity (%) 2014   39.1% 20% 64%      
Price per gram (EUR) 2014   EUR 79 EUR 47 EUR 107      
                 
Amphetamines                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 7%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   1.6% 0% 3%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   0.8% 0% 1%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   1.2% 0% 70%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   2.7% 0% 75%      
Purity (%) 2014   11.8% 1% 49%      
Price per gram (EUR) 2014   EUR 23 EUR 3 EUR 63      
                 
Ecstasy                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   2.0% 1% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   0.5% 0% 6%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   0.4% 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.4% 0% 2%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   1.3% 0% 2%      
Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) 2014   91 mg 27 mg 131 mg      
Price per tablet (EUR) 2014   EUR 11 EUR 4 EUR 16      
                 
Cannabis                
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) 2011   18.0% 5% 42%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) 2012   10.5% 0% 24%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) 2012   5.0% 0% 11%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   14.1% 3% 63%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   64.4% 7% 77%      
Potency — herbal (%) 2014   8.9% 3% 15%      
Potency — resin (%) 2014   12.1% 3% 29%      
Price per gram — herbal (EUR) 2014   EUR 12 EUR 3 EUR 23      
Price per gram — resin (EUR) 2014   EUR 10 EUR 3 EUR 22      
                 
Prevalence of problem drug use                
Problem drug use (rate/1 000) 2012   3.48 2.7 10.0      
Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) 2012   0.4 0.2 9.2      
                 
Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths                
HIV infections newly diagnosed (cases / million) 2014   0.0 0.0 50.9      
HIV prevalence (%) :   : 0% 31%      
HCV prevalence (%) :   : 15% 84%      
Drug-related deaths (rate/million) 2014   20.8 2.4 113.2      
                 
Health and social responses                
Syringes distributed 2014   196 150 382 7 199 660      
Clients in substitution treatment 2014   6 867 178 161 388      
                 
Treatment demand                
All clients 2014   7 812 271 100 456      
New clients 2014   1 055 28 35 007      
All clients with known primary drug 2014   7 812 271 97 068      
New clients with known primary drug 2014   1 055 28 34 088      
                 
Drug law offences                
Number of reports of offences 2014   9 999 537 282 177      
Offences for use/possession 2012   7 292 13 398 422      

Key national figures and statistics

Content for Key national figures and statistics: 

p Eurostat provisional value.

b Break in series.

e Estimated.

: Not available.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2014.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Key figures
  Year   EU (27 countries) Source
Population  2014 4 246 809 506 944 075 bep Eurostat
Population by age classes 15–24  2014 11.7 % 11.3 % bep Eurostat
25–49  33.7 % 34.7 % bep
50–64  21.4 % 19.9 % bep
GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1  2014 59 100 Eurostat
Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2  2013 21.7 % : Eurostat
Unemployment rate 3  2015 16.3 % 9.4 % Eurostat
Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years  2015 43.0 % 20.3 % Eurostat
Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4  2014 88.6  : Council of Europe, SPACE I-2014.1
At risk of poverty rate 5  2014 19.4 %  17.2 % SILC

Contact information for our focal point

Address and contact: 

Government of the Republic of Croatia – Office for Combating Drug Abuse

Preobraženska 4/II
HR - 10 000 Zagreb
Croatia
Tel. +385 14878128
Fax +385 14878120

Head of national focal point: Dijana Jerković

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